Abstract : During the nineteenth century, 2% to 6% of parturients die in childbirth, with peaks of 20% in some years. Thanks to medical advances, maternal mortality decreased between 1870 and 1914. Midwives accompanying the majority of deliveries, the question of their role in the management of major causes of maternal mortality, such as puerperal sepsis, obstructed labor, hemorrhage and eclampsia arises. By studying a professional journal, the Journal des sages-femmes, it also shows that the midwife is formed while attending screening pathology. While waiting for medical attention that she must not fail to call, she can take care of the patient, within its jurisdiction established by the laws of the Year XI and 1892. Although treatments of this period have questionable effectiveness, research is progressing and allows the emergence of Evidence Based Medicine. The midwife takes part on prevention, screening, diagnosis and care of the major causes of maternal mortality.