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Master Thesis

Carburants alternatifs et santé publique : évaluation quantitative des impacts sanitaires associés à l'introduction des véhicules roulant à l'éthanol dans le parc roulant français

Abstract : In the context of its new energy policy orientation, the European Union have recently adopted the Directive 2003/30/EC which requires the substitution of classics petrofuels by agrofuels, fuels extracted from biomass, at a 10 % minimum rate for 2020. Progressive introduction of flexible-fuel vehicle (FFV), only motorisation adapted to large ethanol fuel contents (as E85 - 85 % éthanol with 15 % gasoline) comsumption, appears to be one of the key action actually considered to reach such an objective. This work aims to study the evolution of road traffic's health impact caused by these alternatives vehicle introduction through 3 scenarii of fleet : i) actual fleet considered without FFV-E85, ii) actual fleet with 10 % of light gasoline vehicle substituted by FFV-E85, iii) actual fleet with 10 % of light diesel vehicle substituted by FFV-E85. The first part of this document refers to the bibliographic synthesis work on which were based the technical choices made for the realisation of the study fully described in the second part of this document. Atmospheric concentrations of 7 pollutants (PM10, NO2, CO, benzene, 1,3-butadiene formaldehyde and acetaldéhyde) were evaluated for urban areas of the french national territory segmented in a grid of 4 995 4x4 km cells. Based on theses data, health risks were then calculated by combination of 2 distincts methods : Quantitative Health Risk Assessment (QHRA) and Health Impact Assessment (HIE). Results show that modifications of fleet's configuration as featured into the scenarii involve only slight health impacts fluctuations. However, considering our hypothesis, introduction of FFV-E85 would lead to a global trend of decrease of road's traffic health impact. This trend appears more ponounced with diesel vehicle substitution rather than with gasoline vehicle substitution (total number of avoided death 1.08-2.67 % vs 0.00-0.04 %). These results and associated perspectives are finally discussed and confronted to identified uncerntainties.
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Anthony Cadène. Carburants alternatifs et santé publique : évaluation quantitative des impacts sanitaires associés à l'introduction des véhicules roulant à l'éthanol dans le parc roulant français. Autre. 2009. ⟨dumas-00559968⟩

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