A. Nationale-d, Acréditation et d'Evaluation en SantéRecommandations pour la pratique cliniquePrise en charge des traumatisés crâniens graves à la phase précoce, Consulté le 05 août 2014, 1998.

H. Alhashemi, Dysphagia in severe traumatic brain injury, Neurosci. Riyadh Saudi Arab, vol.15, issue.4, pp.231-267, 2010.

P. Azouvi, P. Joseph, J. Pélissier, and F. Pellas, Prise en charge des traumatisés cranio-encéphaliques. De l'éveil à la réinsertion, 2007.

A. Bicego, K. Lejoly, A. Maudoux, P. Lefebvre, and S. Laureys, [swallowing in disorders of consciousness, Rev. Neurol, 2014.

D. Bleeckx, Dysphagie : Evaluation et rééducation des troubles de la déglutition. De Boeck Université 6. Buchholz DW. 1994. Dysphagia associated with neurological disorders, Acta Otorhinolaryngol. Belg, vol.48, issue.2, pp.143-55, 2001.

L. Cherney and A. Halper, Swallowing Problems in Adults with Traumatic Brain Injury, Seminars in Neurology, vol.16, issue.04, pp.349-53, 1996.
DOI : 10.1055/s-2008-1040993

K. Coombes, P. Bulau, and R. Nusser-muller-busch, Die Therapie des Facio-Oralen Tracts : FOTT nach Kay Coombes, 2011.

M. Crary, G. Mann, and M. Groher, Initial Psychometric Assessment of a Functional Oral Intake Scale for Dysphagia in Stroke Patients, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol.86, issue.8, pp.1516-1536, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.apmr.2004.11.049

A. Dietsch, C. Cirstea, E. Auer, and J. Searl, Effects of body position and sex group on tongue pressure generation, Int. J. Orofac. Myol. Off. Publ. Int. Assoc. Orofac, 2013.

C. Ertekin and I. Aydogdu, Neurophysiology of swallowing, Clinical Neurophysiology, vol.114, issue.12, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S1388-2457(03)00237-2

J. Gates, G. Hartnell, G. Gramigna, T. Hansen, A. Engberg et al., Videofluoroscopy and swallowing studies for neurologic disease: a primer Functional oral intake and time to reach unrestricted dieting for patients with traumatic brain injury, Radiogr. Rev. Publ. Radiol. Soc. North Am. Inc. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil, vol.26, issue.898, pp.22-131556, 2006.

B. Jennett, G. Teasdale, S. Galbraith, J. Pickard, and H. Grant, Severe head injuries in three countries., Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, vol.40, issue.3, pp.291-98, 1977.
DOI : 10.1136/jnnp.40.3.291

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC492665

P. Jones, P. Andrews, S. Midgley, S. Anderson, and I. Piper, Measuring the Burden of Secondary Insults in Head-Injured Patients During Intensive Care, Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology, vol.6, issue.1, 1994.
DOI : 10.1097/00008506-199401000-00001

C. Lazarus and J. Logemann, Swallowing disorders in closed head trauma patients, 1987.

B. Lechevalier, V. Sayette, . De-la, S. Schaeffer, C. Schupp et al., Atteintes isolées des nerfs crâniens

S. Leder, Serial fiberoptic endoscopic swallowing evaluations in the management of patients with dysphagia, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol.79, issue.10, pp.1264-69, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0003-9993(98)90273-8

S. Leder, Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing in Patients with Acute Traumatic Brain Injury, Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, vol.14, issue.5, pp.448-53, 1999.
DOI : 10.1097/00001199-199910000-00005

S. Leder, C. Sasaki, and M. Burrell, Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Dysphagia to Identify Silent Aspiration, Dysphagia, vol.13, issue.1, pp.19-21, 1998.
DOI : 10.1007/PL00009544

H. Levin, O. Donnell, V. Grossman, and R. , The Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test, The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol.167, issue.11, pp.675-84, 1979.
DOI : 10.1097/00005053-197911000-00004

J. Logemann, Rehabilitation of oropharyngeal swallowing disorders, Acta Otorhinolaryngol. Belg, vol.48, issue.2, pp.207-222, 1994.

J. Logemann, Swallowing disorders, Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology, vol.21, issue.4, pp.563-73, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bpg.2007.03.006

L. Mackay, A. Morgan, and B. Bernstein, Swallowing disorders in severe brain injury: Risk factors affecting return to oral intake, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol.80, issue.4, pp.365-71, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0003-9993(99)90271-X

A. Mandaville, A. Ray, H. Robertson, C. Foster, and C. Jesser, A Retrospective Review of Swallow Dysfunction in Patients with Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Dysphagia, vol.99, issue.4, pp.310-328, 2014.
DOI : 10.1007/s00455-013-9509-2

G. Mann and G. Hankey, Initial Clinical and Demographic Predictors of Swallowing Impairment Following Acute Stroke, Dysphagia, vol.16, issue.3, pp.208-223, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/s00455-001-0069-5

R. Martino, N. Foley, S. Bhogal, N. Diamant, M. Speechley et al., Dysphagia After Stroke: Incidence, Diagnosis, and Pulmonary Complications, Stroke, vol.36, issue.12, pp.2756-63, 2005.
DOI : 10.1161/01.STR.0000190056.76543.eb

K. Matsuo and J. Palmer, Coordination of mastication, swallowing and breathing, Japanese Dental Science Review, vol.45, issue.1, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jdsr.2009.03.004

G. Mckee, B. Johnston, G. Mcbride, and W. Primrose, Does age or sex affect pharyngeal swallowing?, Clinical Otolaryngology and Allied Sciences, vol.23, issue.2, pp.100-106, 1998.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2273.1998.00100.x

L. Ministère-de, . Santé, and . Des-sports, Plan National Nutrition Santé.Dénutrition, une pathologie méconnue en société d'abondance Consulté le 02 septembre 2014 Variation in temporal measures of swallowing: sex and volume effects, Dysphagia, vol.28, issue.2, pp.226-259, 2010.

J. Olszewski, [causes, diagnosis and treatment of neurogenic dysphagia as an interdisciplinary clinical problem], Otolaryngol. Pol. Pol. Otolaryngol, vol.60, issue.4, pp.491-500, 2006.

D. Ramsey, D. Smithard, and L. Kalra, Early Assessments of Dysphagia and Aspiration Risk in Acute Stroke Patients, Stroke, vol.34, issue.5, pp.1252-57, 2003.
DOI : 10.1161/01.STR.0000066309.06490.B8

C. Rees, Flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing with sensory testing, Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery, vol.14, issue.6, 2006.
DOI : 10.1097/MOO.0b013e328010ba88

L. Rofes, V. Arreola, R. Mukherjee, and P. Clavé, Sensitivity and specificity of the Eating Assessment Tool and the Volume-Viscosity Swallow Test for clinical evaluation of oropharyngeal dysphagia, Neurogastroenterology & Motility, vol.117, issue.9, pp.1256-65, 2014.
DOI : 10.1111/nmo.12382

A. Shiel, S. Horn, B. Wilson, M. Watson, M. Campbell et al., The Wessex Head Injury Matrix (WHIM) main scale: a preliminary report on a scale to assess and monitor patient recovery after severe head injury, Clinical Rehabilitation, vol.14, issue.4, pp.408-424, 2000.
DOI : 10.1191/0269215500cr326oa

S. Française-d-'anesthésie-réanimation, J. Rome, E. Cuny, and E. Emery, Conférence d'actualisation.Traumatisme crânien chez le polytraumatisé, Consulté le 08 août 2014, 1999.

G. Teasdale and B. Jennett, Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness. a practical scale, Lancet, vol.2, issue.7872, pp.81-84, 1974.
DOI : 10.1016/s0140-6736(74)91639-0

G. Teasdale, Head injury., Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, vol.58, issue.5, pp.526-565, 1995.
DOI : 10.1136/jnnp.58.5.526

R. Terré and F. Mearin, Prospective evaluation of oro-pharyngeal dysphagia after severe traumatic brain injury, Brain Injury, vol.10, issue.13-14, pp.13-141411, 2007.
DOI : 10.1212/WNL.44.9.1655

L. Tiret, E. Hausherr, M. Thicoipe, B. Garros, and P. Maurette, The Epidemiology of Head Trauma in Aquitaine (France), 1986: A Community-Based Study of Hospital Admissions and Deaths, International Journal of Epidemiology, vol.19, issue.1, pp.133-173, 1990.
DOI : 10.1093/ije/19.1.133

M. Trapl, P. Enderle, M. Nowotny, Y. Teuschl, and K. Matz, Dysphagia Bedside Screening for Acute-Stroke Patients: The Gugging Swallowing Screen, Stroke, vol.38, issue.11, pp.382948-52, 2007.
DOI : 10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.483933

S. Veis and J. Logemann, Swallowing disorders in persons with cerebrovascular accident, Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil, vol.66, issue.6, pp.372-75, 1985.

E. Ward, K. Green, and A. Morton, Patterns and Predictors of Swallowing Resolution Following Adult Traumatic Brain Injury, Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, vol.22, issue.3, pp.184-91, 2007.
DOI : 10.1097/01.HTR.0000271119.96780.f5

A. Wieseke, D. Bantz, L. Siktberg, and N. Dillard, Assessment and Early Diagnosis of Dysphagia, Geriatric Nursing, vol.29, issue.6, pp.376-83, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.gerinurse.2007.12.001

C. Winstein, Neurogenic Dysphagia, Physical Therapy, vol.63, issue.12, pp.1992-97, 1983.
DOI : 10.1093/ptj/63.12.1992

V. Woisard-bassols and M. Puech, La réhabilitation de la déglutition chez l'adulte, 2011.