A. Alcami, New insights into the subversion of the chemokine system by poxviruses, European Journal of Immunology, vol.174, issue.4, pp.880-883, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/eji.200737215

A. Altenburg, J. Kreijtz, R. De-vries, F. Song, R. Fux et al., Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) as Production Platform for Vaccines against Influenza and Other Viral Respiratory Diseases, Viruses, vol.6, issue.7, pp.2735-2761, 2014.
DOI : 10.3390/v6072735

I. J. Amanna, M. K. Slifka, and S. Crotty, Immunity and immunological memory following smallpox vaccination, Immunological Reviews, vol.66, issue.1, pp.320-337, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/0042-6822(92)90535-W

A. W. Artenstein, New generation smallpox vaccines: a review of preclinical and clinical data, Reviews in Medical Virology, vol.19, issue.RR01, pp.217-231, 2008.
DOI : 10.1002/rmv.571

T. J. Blanchard, A. Alcami, P. Andrea, and G. L. Smith, Modified vaccinia virus Ankara undergoes limited replication in human cells and lacks several immunomodulatory proteins: implications for use as a human vaccine., Journal of General Virology, vol.79, issue.5, pp.1159-1167, 1998.
DOI : 10.1099/0022-1317-79-5-1159

S. Brandler, A. Lepelley, M. Desdouits, F. Guivel-benhassine, P. Ceccaldi et al., Preclinical Studies of a Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara-Based HIV Candidate Vaccine: Antigen Presentation and Antiviral Effect, Journal of Virology, vol.84, issue.10, pp.5314-5328, 2010.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.02329-09

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00488573

R. H. Brookes, P. C. Hill, P. K. Owiafe, H. B. Ibanga, D. J. Jeffries et al., Safety and Immunogenicity of the Candidate Tuberculosis Vaccine MVA85A in West Africa, PLoS ONE, vol.3, 2008.

W. A. Burgers, E. Shephard, J. E. Monroe, T. Greenhalgh, A. Binder et al., Construction, Characterization, and Immunogenicity of a Multigene Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) Vaccine Based on HIV Type 1 Subtype C, AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses, vol.24, issue.2, pp.195-206, 2008.
DOI : 10.1089/aid.2007.0205

L. Cohn and L. Delamarre, Dendritic Cell-Targeted Vaccines, Frontiers in Immunology, vol.122, 2014.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI60644

URL : http://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2014.00255

P. Conti, D. Kempuraj, K. Kandere, M. D. Gioacchino, R. C. Barbacane et al., IL-10, an inflammatory/inhibitory cytokine, but not always, Immunology Letters, vol.86, issue.2, pp.123-129, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0165-2478(03)00002-6

C. Coquerelle and M. Moser, DC subsets in positive and negative regulation of immunity, Immunological Reviews, vol.31, issue.1, pp.317-334, 2010.
DOI : 10.1111/j.0105-2896.2009.00887.x

A. W. Downie, Jenner's Cowpox Inoculation, BMJ, vol.2, issue.4726, pp.251-256, 1951.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.2.4726.251

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2069627

O. Epaulard, L. Adam, C. Poux, G. Zurawski, N. Salabert et al., Macrophage- and Neutrophil-Derived TNF-?? Instructs Skin Langerhans Cells To Prime Antiviral Immune Responses, The Journal of Immunology, vol.193, issue.5, pp.2416-2426, 2014.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.1303339

F. Jr, R. W. Belshe, R. Brady, R. C. Winokur, P. L. Campbell et al., Comparison of the immunogenicity and safety of a split-virion, inactivated, trivalent influenza vaccine (Fluzone®) administered by intradermal and intramuscular route in healthy adults, Vaccine, vol.29, pp.5666-5674, 2011.

E. Fuchs and S. And-raghavan, GETTING UNDER THE SKIN OF EPIDERMAL MORPHOGENESIS, Nature Reviews Genetics, vol.3, issue.3, pp.199-209, 2002.
DOI : 10.1038/nrg758

M. B. Gardner and P. A. Luciw, Macaque Models of Human Infectious Disease, ILAR Journal, vol.49, issue.2, 2008.
DOI : 10.1093/ilar.49.2.220

S. Guerra, J. L. Nájera, J. M. González, L. A. López-fernández, N. Climent et al., Distinct Gene Expression Profiling after Infection of Immature Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells by the Attenuated Poxvirus Vectors MVA and NYVAC, Journal of Virology, vol.81, issue.16, pp.8707-8721, 2007.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.00444-07

M. Haniffa, F. Ginhoux, X. Wang, V. Bigley, M. Abel et al., Differential rates of replacement of human dermal dendritic cells and macrophages during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.95, issue.2, pp.371-385, 2009.
DOI : 10.1084/jem.20022151

L. Hayflick and P. S. Moorhead, The serial cultivation of human diploid cell strains, Experimental Cell Research, vol.25, issue.3, pp.585-621, 1961.
DOI : 10.1016/0014-4827(61)90192-6

S. Howles, A. Guimarães-walker, H. Yang, G. Hancock, K. Di-gleria et al., Vaccination with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-vectored HIV-1 immunogen induces modest vector-specific T cell responses in human subjects, Vaccine, vol.28, issue.45, pp.7306-7312, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.08.077

T. Kanai, M. Watanabe, A. Okazawa, T. Sato, M. Yamazaki et al., Macrophage-derived IL-18???mediated intestinal inflammation in the murine model of Crohn's disease, Gastroenterology, vol.121, issue.4, pp.875-888, 2001.
DOI : 10.1053/gast.2001.28021

G. Kundrotas, Surface markers distinguishing mesenchymal stem cells from fibroblasts, Acta medica Lituanica, vol.19, issue.2, 2012.
DOI : 10.6001/actamedica.v19i2.2313

Y. Kurashima, T. Amiya, K. Fujisawa, N. Shibata, Y. Suzuki et al., The Enzyme Cyp26b1 Mediates Inhibition 27, 2014.

M. A. Liu, Immunologic Basis of Vaccine Vectors, Immunity, vol.33, issue.4, pp.504-515, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2010.10.004

L. Liu, Q. Zhong, T. Tian, K. Dubin, S. K. Athale et al., Epidermal injury and infection during poxvirus immunization is crucial for the generation of highly protective T cell???mediated immunity, Nature Medicine, vol.62, issue.2, pp.224-227, 2010.
DOI : 10.1038/nm.2078

W. Lu, X. Wu, Y. Lu, W. Guo, and J. Andrieu, Therapeutic dendritic-cell vaccine for simian AIDS, Nature Medicine, vol.96, issue.1, pp.27-32, 2003.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.96.26.15109

B. Malleret, I. Karlsson, B. Manéglier, P. Brochard, B. Delache et al., myeloid dendritic cells in cynomolgus macaques, Immunology, vol.75, issue.4, pp.223-233, 2008.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.79.14.8878-8885.2005

B. Malleret, B. Maneglier, I. Karlsson, P. Lebon, M. Nascimbeni et al., Primary infection with simian immunodeficiency virus: plasmacytoid dendritic cell homing to lymph nodes, type I interferon, and immune suppression, Blood, vol.112, issue.12, pp.4598-4608, 2008.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2008-06-162651

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00345337

V. S. Moorthy, S. Mcconkey, M. Roberts, P. Gothard, N. Arulanantham et al., Safety of DNA and modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccines against liver-stage P. falciparum malaria in non-immune volunteers, Vaccine, vol.21, issue.17-18, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00771-5

T. Querec, Yellow fever vaccine YF-17D activates multiple dendritic cell subsets via TLR2, 7, 8, and 9 to stimulate polyvalent immunity, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.77, issue.2, pp.413-424, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cub.2003.12.020

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2118210

S. G. Reed, S. Bertholet, R. N. Coler, and M. Friede, New horizons in adjuvants for vaccine development, Trends in Immunology, vol.30, issue.1, pp.23-32, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.it.2008.09.006

T. A. Rege and J. S. Hagood, Thy-1 as a regulator of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in axon regeneration, apoptosis, adhesion, migration, cancer, and fibrosis, The FASEB Journal, vol.20, issue.8, pp.1045-1054, 2006.
DOI : 10.1096/fj.05-5460rev

G. Romain, E. Van-gulck, O. Epaulard, S. Oh, D. Li et al., CD34-derived dendritic cells transfected ex vivo with HIV-Gag mRNA induce polyfunctional T-cell responses in nonhuman primates, European Journal of Immunology, vol.79, issue.8, pp.2019-2030, 2012.
DOI : 10.1002/eji.201242478

K. J. Stittelaar, T. Kuiken, R. L. De-swart, G. Van-amerongen, H. W. Vos et al., Safety of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) in immune-suppressed macaques, Vaccine, vol.19, issue.27, pp.3700-3709, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0264-410X(01)00075-5

P. Stoitzner, L. K. Green, J. Y. Jung, K. M. Price, C. H. Tripp et al., Tumor Immunotherapy by Epicutaneous Immunization Requires Langerhans Cells, The Journal of Immunology, vol.180, issue.3, 1991.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.180.3.1991

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00294265

C. Verheust, M. Goossens, K. Pauwels, and D. Breyer, Biosafety aspects of modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based vectors used for gene therapy or vaccination, Vaccine, vol.30, issue.16, pp.2623-2632, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.02.016

D. Y. Vogel, J. E. Glim, A. W. Stavenuiter, M. Breur, P. Heijnen et al., Human macrophage polarization in vitro: Maturation and activation methods compared, Immunobiology, vol.219, issue.9, pp.695-703, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.imbio.2014.05.002

A. Vogt, B. Mahé, D. Costagliola, O. Bonduelle, S. Hadam et al., Transcutaneous Anti-Influenza Vaccination Promotes Both CD4 and CD8 T Cell Immune Responses in Humans, The Journal of Immunology, vol.180, issue.3, pp.1482-1489, 2008.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.180.3.1482

C. T. Weaver, L. E. Harrington, P. R. Mangan, M. Gavrieli, M. et al., Th17: An Effector CD4 T Cell Lineage with Regulatory T Cell Ties, Immunity, vol.24, issue.6, pp.677-688, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2006.06.002

E. R. Wonderlich, M. Kader, V. Wijewardana, and S. M. Barratt-boyes, Dissecting the role of dendritic cells in simian immunodeficiency virus infection and AIDS, Immunologic Research, vol.6, issue.2-3, pp.228-234, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/s12026-011-8220-3

L. C. Zaba, J. G. Krueger, and M. A. Lowes, Resident and ???Inflammatory??? Dendritic Cells in Human Skin, Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol.129, issue.2, pp.302-308, 2008.
DOI : 10.1038/jid.2008.225

J. Zhu, J. Martinez, X. Huang, Y. , and Y. , Innate immunity against vaccinia virus is mediated by TLR2 and requires TLR-independent production of IFN-??, Blood, vol.109, issue.2, pp.619-625, 2007.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2006-06-027136