D. Agnello, P. Bigini, P. Villa, T. Mennini, A. Cerami et al., Erythropoietin exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on the CNS in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, Brain Research, vol.952, issue.1, pp.128-162, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0006-8993(02)03239-0

C. Baines, M. Cohen, and J. Downey, Signal Transduction in Ischemic Preconditioning:., Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, vol.52, issue.1, pp.741-54, 1999.
DOI : 10.1006/jmcc.1996.0124

J. Baker, Erythropoietin mimics ischemic preconditioning, Vascular Pharmacology, vol.42, issue.5-6, pp.233-274, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vph.2005.02.004

D. Banerjee, M. Rodriguez, M. Nag, and J. Adamson, Exposure of endothelial cells to recombinant human erythropoietin induces nitric oxide synthase activity, Kidney International, vol.57, issue.5, pp.1895-904, 2000.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1523-1755.2000.00039.x

A. Bikfalvi and Z. Han, Angiogenic factors are hematopoietic growth factors and vice versa, Leukemia, vol.8, pp.523-532, 1994.

M. Bogoyevitch, An update on the cardiac effects of erythropoietin cardioprotection by erythropoietin and the lessons learnt from studies in neuroprotection, Cardiovascular Research, vol.63, issue.2, pp.208-224, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cardiores.2004.03.017

M. Brines, P. Ghezzi, S. Keenan, D. Agnello, N. De-lanerolle et al., Erythropoietin crosses the blood-brain barrier to protect against experimental brain injury, Proc Natl Acad Sei US A, pp.10526-10557, 2000.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.97.19.10526

A. Bullard and P. Govewalla, Erythropoietin protects the rnyocardium against reperfusion injury in vitro and in vivo, Basic Res Cardiol, vol.100, pp.1-7, 2005.

Z. Cai and G. Sernenza, Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase Signaling Is Required for Erythropoietin-Mediated Acute Protection Against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury, Circulation, vol.109, issue.17, pp.2050-2053, 2004.
DOI : 10.1161/01.CIR.0000127954.98131.23

Z. Cai, D. Manalo, G. Wei, E. Rodriguez, K. Fox-talbot et al., Hearts From Rodents Exposed to Intermittent Hypoxia or Erythropoietin Are Protected Against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury, Circulation, vol.108, issue.1, pp.79-85, 2003.
DOI : 10.1161/01.CIR.0000078635.89229.8A

L. Calvillo, R. Latini, J. Kajstura, A. Leri, P. Anversa et al., Recombinant human erythropoietin protects the rnyocardium frorn ischerniareperfusion injury and prornotes beneficial rernodeling, Proc N atl Acad Sei U S A, pp.4802-4808, 2003.

W. Cheung, B. Goon, M. Guilfoyle, and M. Wacholtz, Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of recombinant human erythropoietin after single and multiple subcutaneous doses to healthy subjects*, Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol.1, issue.4, pp.412-435, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0009-9236(98)90072-8

M. Chikurna, S. Masuda, T. Kobayashi, M. Nagao, and R. Sasaki, Tissue-specific regulation of erythropoietin production in the rnurine kidney, brain, and uterus, Arn J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, vol.279, pp.1242-1250, 2000.

B. Debaene, Place de l' érythropoiétine en période péri opératoire. Conférences d'actualisation, Editions scientifiques et médicales Elsevier SAS, pp.121-132, 2001.

M. Digicaylioglu and S. Lipton, Erythropoietin-rnediated neuroprotection involves crosstalk between Jak2 and NF-kappaB signalling cascades, Nature, vol.412, issue.6847, pp.641-648, 2001.
DOI : 10.1038/35088074

. Ebertbl and H. Bunn, Regulation of the erythropoietin gene, Blood, vol.94, pp.1864-77, 1999.

H. Ehrenreich, M. Hasselblatt, C. Dernbowski, L. Cepek, P. Lewczuk et al., Erythropoietin therapy for acute stroke is both safe and beneficial, Mol Med, vol.8, pp.495-505, 2002.

S. Erbayraktar, G. Grasso, A. Sfacteria, Q. Xie, T. Coleman et al., Asialoerythropoietin is a nonerythropoietie cytokine with broad neuroprotective aetivity in vivo, Proc Natl Acad Sei US A, p.9102, 2003.

J. Fisher, Erythropoietin: physiology and pharmaeology update, Exp Biol Med, vol.228, pp.1-14, 2003.

S. Gene, T. Koroglu, and G. K. , Erythropoietin and the nervous system, Brain Res, vol.1000, pp.19-31, 2004.

M. Joyeux-faure, P. Béguin, D. Godin-ribuot, and C. Ribuot, Rapid pharmacological preconditioning by erythropoietin mediated by indueible NOS and mitochondrial ATPdependent potassium channels in the rat heart, Arch Mal Coeur Vaisseaux, p.98387, 2005.

M. Kawakami, M. Sekiguchi, K. Sato, S. Kozaki, and M. Takahashi, Erythropoietin Receptor-mediated Inhibition of Exocytotic Glutamate Release Confers Neuroprotection during Chemical Ischemia, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.276, issue.42, pp.39469-75, 2001.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M105832200

K. Koshimura, Y. Murakami, M. Sohmiya, J. Tanaka, and Y. Kato, Effects of Erythropoietin on Neuronal Activity, Journal of Neurochemistry, vol.59, issue.6, pp.2565-72, 1999.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1471-4159.1999.0722565.x

A. Kumral, S. Gonenc, . Aeikgoz-0, A. Sonmez, K. Gene et al., Erythropoietin Increases Glutathione Peroxidase Enzyme Activity and Decreases Lipid Peroxidation Levels in Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury in Neonatal Rats, Neonatology, vol.87, issue.1, pp.15-23, 2005.
DOI : 10.1159/000080490

K. Jaquet, K. Krause, M. Tawakol-khodai, S. Geidel, and K. Kuck, Erythropoietin and VEGF Exhibit Equal Angiogenic Potential, Microvascular Research, vol.64, issue.2, pp.326-359, 2002.
DOI : 10.1006/mvre.2002.2426

M. Joyeux-faure, D. Godin-ribuot, and C. Ribuot, Erythropoietin and myoeardial protection: what's new? Fund Clin Pharmaeol, pp.439-485, 2005.

S. Juul, A. Yachnis, A. Rojiani, and R. Christensen, Immunohistochemical Localization of Erythropoietin and Its Receptor in the Developing Human Brain, Pediatric and Developmental Pathology, vol.2, issue.2, pp.148-58, 1999.
DOI : 10.1007/s100249900103

N. Kanagy, M. Perrine, D. Cheung, and B. Walker, Erythropoietin Administration In Vivo Increases Vascular Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression, Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, vol.42, issue.4, pp.527-560, 2003.
DOI : 10.1097/00005344-200310000-00011

C. Lacombe and P. Mayeux, Erythropoietin (Epo) receptor and Epo mimetics, Adv Nephrol Necker Hosp, vol.29, pp.177-89, 1999.

T. Lappin, A. Maxwell, and P. Johnston, EPO's Alter Ego: Erythropoietin Has Multiple Actions, Stem Cells, vol.16, issue.6, pp.485-92, 2002.
DOI : 10.1634/stemcells.20-6-485

T. Lappin, The Cellular Biology of Erythropoietin Receptors, The Oncologist, vol.8, issue.90001, pp.15-23, 2003.
DOI : 10.1634/theoncologist.8-suppl_1-15

E. Lipsic, P. Van-der-meer, R. Henning, A. Suurmeijer, K. Boddeus et al., Timing of Erythropoietin Treatment for Cardioprotection in Ischemia/Reperfusion, Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, vol.44, issue.4, pp.473-482, 2004.
DOI : 10.1097/01.fjc.0000140209.04675.c3

H. Marti, R. Wenger, L. Rivas, U. Straumann, M. Digicaylioglu et al., Erythropoietin Gene Expression in Human, Monkey and Murine Brain, European Journal of Neuroscience, vol.35, issue.4, pp.666-76, 1996.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1460-9568.1996.tb01252.x

H. Marti, Erythropoietin and the hypoxic brain, Journal of Experimental Biology, vol.207, issue.18, pp.3233-3275, 2004.
DOI : 10.1242/jeb.01049

C. Moon, M. Krawczyk, D. Ahn, I. Ahmet, D. Paik et al., Erythropoietin reduces myocardial infarction and left ventricular functional decline after coronary artery ligation in rats, Proc Natl Acad Sei US A, pp.11612-11619, 2003.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.1930406100

E. Morishita, S. Masuda, M. Nagao, Y. Yasuda, and R. Sasaki, Erythropoietin receptor is expressed in rat hippocampal and cerebral cortical neurons, and erythropoietin prevents in vitro glutamate-induced neuronal death, Neuroscience, vol.76, issue.1, pp.105-121, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0306-4522(96)00306-5

C. Murry, R. Jennings, and K. Reimer, Preconditioning with ischemia: a delay of lethal cell injury in ischemic myocardium, Circulation, vol.74, issue.5, pp.1124-1160, 1986.
DOI : 10.1161/01.CIR.74.5.1124

K. Nandagopal, T. Dawson, and V. Dawson, Critical role for nitric oxide signaling in cardiac and neuronal ischemic preconditioning and tolerance, J Pharmacol Exp Ther, vol.297, pp.474-482, 2001.

T. Ng, G. Marx, T. Littlewood, and I. Macdougall, Recombinant erythropoietin in clinical practice, Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol.79, issue.933, pp.367-376, 2003.
DOI : 10.1136/pmj.79.933.367

C. Parsa, A. Matsumoto, J. Kim, R. Riel, L. Pascal et al., A novel protective effect of erythropoietin in the infarcted heart, Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.112, issue.7, pp.999-1007, 2003.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI18200

C. Parsa, J. Kim, R. Riel, L. Pascal, R. Thompson et al., Cardioprotective Effects of Erythropoietin in the Reperfused Ischemic Heart: A POTENTIAL ROLE FOR CARDIAC FIBROBLASTS, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.279, issue.20, pp.20655-62, 2004.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M314099200

J. Pascual, V. Belalcazar, C. De-bolos, R. Gutierrez, E. Llop et al., Recombinant Erythropoietin and Analogues, Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, vol.26, issue.2, pp.233-274, 2005.
DOI : 10.1097/00007691-200404000-00016

. Prescrire, Darbepoiétine alfa : pas de progrès démontré pour l'anémie due aux cytotoxiques, pp.412-418, 2005.

M. Sakanaka, T. Wen, S. Matsuda, S. Masuda, E. Morishita et al., In vivo evidence that erythropoietin protects neurons from ischemic damage, Proc Natl Acad Sei US A, pp.4635-4675, 1998.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.95.8.4635

Y. Shi, P. Rafiee, J. Su, K. Pritchard, . Jr et al., Acute cardioprotective effects of erythropoietin in infant rabbits are mediated by activation of protein kinases and potassium channels, Basic Research in Cardiology, vol.99, issue.3, pp.173-82, 2004.
DOI : 10.1007/s00395-004-0455-x

H. Shimpo, T. Mizumoto, K. Onoda, H. Yuasa, and I. Yada, Erythropoietin in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Chest, vol.111, issue.6, pp.1565-70, 1997.
DOI : 10.1378/chest.111.6.1565

T. Shingo, S. Sorokan, T. Shimazaki, and S. Weiss, Erythropoietin regulates the in vitro and in vivo production of neuronal progenitors by mammalian forebrain neural stem cells, J Neurosci, vol.21, pp.9733-9776, 2001.

K. Smith, A. Bleyer, W. Little, and D. Sane, The cardiovascular effects of erythropoietin, Cardiovascular Research, vol.59, issue.3, pp.538-586, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0008-6363(03)00468-1

A. Tramontano, R. Muniyappa, A. Black, M. Blendea, I. Cohen et al., Erythropoietin protects cardiac myocytes from hypoxia-induced apoptosis through an Akt-dependent pathway, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.308, issue.4, pp.990-994, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0006-291X(03)01503-1

V. Vogel, H. Ivamer, A. Backer, H. Meyer-lehnert, W. Jelkmann et al., Effects of Erythropoietin on Endothelin-1 Synthesis and the Cellular Calcium Messenger System in Vascular Endothelial Cells, American Journal of Hypertension, vol.10, issue.3, pp.289-96, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0895-7061(96)00410-4

C. Wiessner, P. Allegrini, D. Ekatodramis, U. Jewell, T. Stallmach et al., Increased cerebral infarct volumes in polyglobulie mice overexpressing erythropoietin, J Cereb Blood Flow Metab, vol.21, pp.857-64, 2001.

G. Wright, P. Hanlon, K. Amin, C. Steenbergen, E. Murphy et al., Erythropoietin receptor expression in adult rat cardiomyocytes is associated with an acute cardioprotective effect for recombinant erythropoietin during ischemia-reperfusion injury, The FASEB Journal, vol.18, pp.1031-1034, 2004.
DOI : 10.1096/fj.03-1289fje

D. Yellon and J. Downey, Preconditioning the Myocardium: From Cellular Physiology to Clinical Cardiology, Physiological Reviews, vol.83, issue.4, pp.1113-51, 2003.
DOI : 10.1152/physrev.00009.2003

X. Yu, C. Lin, F. Costantini, and C. Noguchi, The human erythropoietin receptor gene rescues erythropoiesis and developmental defects in the erythropoietin receptor null mouse, Blood, vol.98, issue.2, pp.475-482, 2001.
DOI : 10.1182/blood.V98.2.475