J. Freney, F. Renaud, R. Leclercq, and P. Riegel, Précis de bactériologie clinique, 2007.

K. Gupta, T. Hooton, and W. Stamm, Increasing Antimicrobial Resistance and the Management of Uncomplicated Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections, Annals of Internal Medicine, vol.135, issue.1, pp.41-50, 2001.
DOI : 10.7326/0003-4819-135-1-200107030-00012

I. Dyer, T. Sankary, and J. Dawson, Antibiotic resistance in bacterial urinary tract infections, West J Med, vol.169, issue.5, pp.265-273, 1991.

J. Jorgensen and M. Ferraro, Antimicrobial susceptibility testing: a review of general principles and contemporary practices. Clin Infect Dis Off Publ Infect Dis Soc Am, pp.1749-55, 2009.

C. Baker, S. Stocker, D. Culver, and C. Thornsberry, Comparison of the E Test to agar dilution, broth microdilution, and agar diffusion susceptibility testing techniques by using a special challenge set of bacteria, J Clin Microbiol, vol.29, issue.3, pp.533-541, 1991.

T. Winstanley and P. Courvalin, Expert Systems in Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol.24, issue.3, 2011.
DOI : 10.1128/CMR.00061-10

E. Martin, M. Nouvellon, M. Pestel, J. Pons, and J. Lemeland, Evaluation of the Epsilometer test (E test) for testing the susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci to teicoplanin, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.36, issue.1, pp.83-91, 1995.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/36.1.83

S. Maalej, M. Meziou, F. Rhimi, and A. Hammami, Comparison of disc diffusion, Etest and agar dilution for susceptibility testing of colistin against Enterobacteriaceae, Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol.49, issue.5, pp.546-51, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2011.03145.x

J. Donay, D. Mathieu, P. Fernandes, C. Prégermain, P. Bruel et al., Evaluation of the Automated Phoenix System for Potential Routine Use in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol.42, issue.4, pp.1542-1548, 2004.
DOI : 10.1128/JCM.42.4.1542-1546.2004

M. Menozzi, U. Eigner, S. Covan, S. Rossi, P. Somenzi et al., Two-Center Collaborative Evaluation of Performance of the BD Phoenix Automated Microbiology System for Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Gram-Negative Bacteria, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol.44, issue.11, pp.4085-94, 2006.
DOI : 10.1128/JCM.00614-06

A. Ferjani, M. Marzouk, B. Moussa, F. Boukadida, and J. , Resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from the urinary tract to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and other antibiotics]. Médecine Mal Infect, pp.161-165, 2010.

W. Stamm and T. Hooton, Management of Urinary Tract Infections in Adults, N Engl J Med, vol.329, issue.18, pp.1328-1362, 1993.

M. Etienne, E. Lefebvre, N. Frebourg, H. Hamel, M. Pestel-caron et al., Antibiotic treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis based on rapid urine test and local epidemiology: lessons from a primary care series, BMC Infectious Diseases, vol.67, issue.1, p.137, 2014.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/dks222

S. Bouchillon, R. Badal, D. Hoban, and S. Hawser, Antimicrobial susceptibility of inpatient urinary tract isolates of gram-negative bacilli in the United States: results from the study for monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends (SMART) program, Clin Ther, pp.2009-2011, 2013.

T. Coque, F. Baquero, and R. Canton, Increasing prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Europe, Euro Surveill Bull Eur Sur Mal Transm Eur Commun Dis Bull, vol.13, issue.47, 2008.

C. Arpin, C. Quentin, F. Grobost, E. Cambau, J. Robert et al., Nationwide survey of extended-spectrum ??-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the French community setting, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.63, issue.6, pp.1205-1219, 2009.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/dkp108

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00426312

J. Caillon, Enquête transville 2012 -résistance dans les laboratoires de ville. RICAI, 2013.

D. Paterson and R. Bonomo, Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases, Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol.24, issue.1, pp.657-86, 2005.
DOI : 10.1055/s-2003-37919

H. and C. De-la-transparence, Available from: http://www.has-sante.fr 26. HAS, Commission de la transparnce, avis du 17 janvier 2007 à propos de l'augmentin, 2014.

P. Bradford, Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in the 21st century: characterization, epidemiology, and detection of this important resistance threat, Clin Microbiol Rev, 2001.

P. Hawkey and A. Jones, The changing epidemiology of resistance, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.64, issue.Supplement 1, pp.3-10, 2009.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/dkp256

D. Fournier, C. Chirouze, J. Leroy, P. Cholley, D. Talon et al., Alternatives to carbapenems in ESBL-producing Escherichia coli infections, M??decine et Maladies Infectieuses, vol.43, issue.2, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.medmal.2013.01.006

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00802661

V. Leflon-guibout, G. Ternat, B. Heym, and M. Nicolas-chanoine, Exposure to co-amoxiclav as a risk factor for co-amoxiclav-resistant Escherichia coli urinary tract infection, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.49, issue.2, pp.367-71, 2002.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/49.2.367

A. Ortega, J. Oteo, M. Aranzamendi-zaldumbide, R. Bartolomé, G. Bou et al., Spanish Multicenter Study of the Epidemiology and Mechanisms of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate Resistance in Escherichia coli, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.56, issue.7, pp.3576-81
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.06393-11

O. Martín, A. Valverde, M. Morosini, M. Rodríguez-domínguez, M. Rodríguez-baños et al., Population Analysis and Epidemiological Features of Inhibitor-Resistant-TEM-??-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from both Community and Hospital Settings in Madrid, Spain, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol.48, issue.7, pp.2368-72, 2010.
DOI : 10.1128/JCM.00608-10

G. Schito, K. Naber, H. Botto, J. Palou, T. Mazzei et al., The ARESC study: an international survey on the antimicrobial resistance of pathogens involved in uncomplicated urinary tract infections, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, vol.34, issue.5, pp.407-420, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2009.04.012

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00556347

F. Robin, L. Gibold, and R. Bonnet, R??sistances naturelles et acquises aux ??-lactamines chez les ent??robact??ries : comment les identifier en pratique quotidienne ?, Revue Francophone des Laboratoires, vol.2012, issue.445, pp.47-58
DOI : 10.1016/S1773-035X(12)71676-3

N. Caroff, E. Espaze, D. Gautreau, H. Richet, and A. Reynaud, Analysis of the effects of -42 and -32 ampC promoter mutations in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli hyperproducing AmpC, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.45, issue.6, pp.783-791, 2000.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/45.6.783

E. Miró, M. Cuerpo, . Del, F. Navarro, M. Sabaté et al., Emergence of clinical Escherichia coli isolates with decreased susceptibility to ceftazidime and synergic effect with co-amoxiclav due to SHV-1 hyperproduction, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.42, issue.4, pp.535-543, 1998.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/42.4.535

R. Waltner-toews, D. Paterson, Z. Qureshi, H. Sidjabat, J. Adams-haduch et al., Clinical Characteristics of Bloodstream Infections Due to Ampicillin-Sulbactam-Resistant, Non-Extended- Spectrum-??-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli and the Role of TEM-1 Hyperproduction, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.55, issue.2, pp.495-501, 2011.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.00797-10

I. Simpson, P. Harper, O. Callaghan, and C. , Principal beta-lactamases responsible for resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics in urinary tract infections., Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.17, issue.6, 1980.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.17.6.929

K. Thomson, D. Weber, C. Sanders, and W. Sanders, Beta-lactamase production in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and resistance to beta-lactam-enzyme inhibitor combinations., Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.34, issue.4, pp.622-629, 1990.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.34.4.622

G. Vedel, A. Belaaouaj, L. Gilly, R. Labia, A. Philippon et al., producing TRI ??-lactamases: novel TEM-enzymes conferring resistance to ??-lactamase inhibitors, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.30, issue.4, pp.449-62, 1992.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/30.4.449

S. Bergström and S. Normark, Beta-lactam resistance in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli caused by elevated production of the ampC-mediated chromosomal beta-lactamase., Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.16, issue.4, pp.427-460, 1979.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.16.4.427

H. Mammeri, F. Eb, A. Berkani, and P. Nordmann, Molecular characterization of AmpC-producing Escherichia coli clinical isolates recovered in a French hospital, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.61, issue.3, pp.498-503, 2008.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/dkm538

R. Odeh, S. Kelkar, A. Hujer, R. Bonomo, P. Schreckenberger et al., Broad resistance due to plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Clin Infect Dis Off Publ Infect Dis Soc Am, Jul, vol.1535, issue.2, pp.140-145, 2002.

M. Nicolas-chanoine, Inhibitor-resistant beta-lactamases, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.40, issue.1, 1997.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/40.1.1

P. Stapleton, P. Wu, A. King, K. Shannon, G. French et al., Incidence and mechanisms of resistance to the combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in Escherichia coli, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.39, issue.11, pp.2478-83, 1995.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.39.11.2478

J. Rodríguez-baño, J. Oteo, A. Ortega, M. Villar, M. Conejo et al., Epidemiological and Clinical Complexity of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate-Resistant Escherichia coli, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol.51, issue.7, 2013.
DOI : 10.1128/JCM.00999-13

V. Prakash, J. Lewis, M. Herrera, B. Wickes, and J. Jorgensen, Oral and Parenteral Therapeutic Options for Outpatient Urinary Infections Caused by Enterobacteriaceae Producing CTX-M Extended-Spectrum ??-Lactamases, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.53, issue.3, pp.1278-80, 2009.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.01519-08

A. Philippon, R. Labia, and G. Jacoby, Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases., Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.33, issue.8, pp.1131-1137, 1989.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.33.8.1131

P. Retamar, L. López-cerero, M. Muniain, Á. Pascual, J. Rodríguez-baño et al., Impact of the MIC of Piperacillin-Tazobactam on the Outcome of Patients with Bacteremia Due to Extended-Spectrum-??-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.57, issue.7, pp.3402-3406
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.00135-13

J. Rodríguez-baño, M. Navarro, P. Retamar, E. Picón, and Á. Pascual, ??-Lactam/??-Lactam Inhibitor Combinations for the Treatment of Bacteremia Due to Extended-Spectrum ??-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli: A Post Hoc Analysis of Prospective Cohorts, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.54, issue.2, pp.167-74, 2012.
DOI : 10.1093/cid/cir790

. Société-de-pathologie-infectieuse-de-langue-française, Diagnostic et antibiothérapie des infections urinaires bactériennes communautaires de l'adulte, Mise au point 2014 [Internet]. 2014 Dec. Available from

A. Iravani and G. Richard, Treatment of urinary tract infections with a combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid., Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.22, issue.4, pp.672-679, 1982.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.22.4.672

. Comité, Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie

. Comité, Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie. Recommandations 2014 version 1 [Internet] Available from: http://www.sfm-microbiologie

J. Landis and G. Koch, An Application of Hierarchical Kappa-type Statistics in the Assessment of Majority Agreement among Multiple Observers, Biometrics, vol.33, issue.2, pp.363-74, 1977.
DOI : 10.2307/2529786

V. Lorian, Antibiotics in Laboratory Medicine. Edition 5, 2005.

P. Todd and P. Benfield, Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. An update of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use. Drugs, Feb, vol.39, issue.2, pp.264-307, 1990.

G. Witkowski, H. Lode, G. Höffken, and P. Koeppe, Pharmacokinetic studies of amoxicillin, potassium clavulanate and their combination, European Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol.5, issue.Supplement, pp.233-240, 1982.
DOI : 10.1007/BF02019714

I. Linhares, T. Raposo, A. Rodrigues, and A. Almeida, Frequency and antimicrobial resistance patterns of bacteria implicated in community urinary tract infections: a ten-year surveillance study (2000???2009), BMC Infectious Diseases, vol.58, issue.1, p.19, 2000.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/dkl243

S. Bugier, Sensibilité au pivmécillinam de Escherichia coli dans les cystites communautaires : étude rétrospective avec la méthodologie CASFM-EUCAST 2014. 34ème RICAI, 2014.

L. Nicolle, Pivmecillinam in the treatment of urinary tract infections, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.46, issue.90001, pp.35-44, 2000.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/46.suppl_1.35

M. Sanguinetti, B. Posteraro, T. Spanu, D. Ciccaglione, L. Romano et al., Characterization of Clinical Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from Italy by the BD Phoenix Extended-Spectrum ??-Lactamase Detection Method, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol.41, issue.4, pp.1463-1471, 2003.
DOI : 10.1128/JCM.41.4.1463-1468.2003

J. Rodríguez-baño, J. Alcalá, J. Cisneros, F. Grill, A. Oliver et al., Community Infections Caused by Extended-Spectrum ??-Lactamase???Producing Escherichia coli, Archives of Internal Medicine, vol.168, issue.17, pp.1897-902, 2008.
DOI : 10.1001/archinte.168.17.1897

A. Bond, H. Plumb, and P. Turner, Susceptibility testing of Escherichia coli isolates from urines: are we at risk of reporting false antibiotic resistance to co-amoxiclav?, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.67, issue.6, pp.1557-1565, 2012.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/dks034