L. Melancia, J. , F. Francisco, A. , L. Antunes et al., Spinal stenosis, Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol.119, pp.541-550, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/B978-0-7020-4086-3.00035-7

J. Dimar, Two-Year Fusion and Clinical Outcomes in 224 Patients Treated with a

J. Sénégas, Surgery of the intervertebral ligaments, alternative to arthrodesis in the treatment of degenerative instabilities, Acta Orthop Belg, vol.57, issue.1, pp.221-227, 1991.

J. Sénégas, Mechanical Supplementation by Non-Rigid Fixation in Degenerative

J. Sénégas, Long-Term Actuarial Survivorship Analysis of an Interspinous Stabilization System, Eur Spine J. Aug, vol.1316, issue.8, pp.1279-87, 2007.

J. Sénégas, Clinical evaluation of a lumbar interspinous dynamic stabilization device (the Wallis system) with a 13-year mean follow-up, Neurosurgical Review, vol.31, issue.Suppl 2, pp.335-341, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/s10143-009-0199-z

G. Marsh, S. Mahir, and A. Leyte, A prospective randomised controlled trial to assess the efficacy of dynamic stabilisation of the lumbar spine with the Wallis ligament, European Spine Journal, vol.38, issue.10, pp.2156-60, 2014.
DOI : 10.1007/s00586-014-3487-4

P. Korovessis, Does Wallis implant reduce adjacent segment degeneration above lumbosacral instrumented fusion?, European Spine Journal, vol.13, issue.3, pp.830-870, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/s00586-009-0976-y

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2899653

D. Lindsey, The Effects of an Interspinous Implant on the Kinematics of the Instrumented and Adjacent Levels in the Lumbar Spine, Spine, vol.28, issue.19, pp.2192-2199, 2003.
DOI : 10.1097/01.BRS.0000084877.88192.8E

F. Phillips, Biomechanics of posterior dynamic stabilizing device (DIAM) after facetectomy and discectomy, The Spine Journal, vol.6, issue.6, pp.714-736, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.spinee.2006.02.003

V. Lafage, New Interspinous Implant Evaluation Using an in Vitro Biomechanical Study Combined with a Finite-Element Analysis. Spine, Jul, vol.1532, issue.16, pp.1706-1719, 2007.

B. Ilharreborde, Biomechanical evaluation of posterior lumbar dynamic stabilization: an in vitro comparison between Universal Clamp and Wallis systems, European Spine Journal, vol.88, issue.Suppl 2, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/s00586-010-1641-1

D. Lindsey, The Effects of an Interspinous Implant on the Kinematics of the Instrumented and Adjacent Levels in the Lumbar Spine, Spine, vol.28, issue.19, pp.2192-2199, 2003.
DOI : 10.1097/01.BRS.0000084877.88192.8E

S. Park, T. Lim, and J. Park, A biomechanical study of the instrumented and adjacent lumbar levels after In-Space interspinous spacer insertion, Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, vol.12, issue.5, pp.560-69, 2010.
DOI : 10.3171/2009.11.SPINE08668

J. Richards, The Treatment Mechanism of an Interspinous Process Implant for Lumbar Neurogenic Intermittent Claudication. Spine, pp.744-793, 2005.

J. Lee, An Interspinous Process Distractor (X STOP) for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis in Elderly Patients, Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques, vol.17, issue.1, 2004.
DOI : 10.1097/00024720-200402000-00013

M. Siddiqui, Influence of X Stop on Neural Foramina and Spinal Canal Area in Spinal Stenosis, Spine, vol.31, issue.25, pp.2958-62, 2006.
DOI : 10.1097/01.brs.0000247797.92847.7d

D. Lindsey, The Effects of an Interspinous Implant on the Kinematics of the Instrumented and Adjacent Levels in the Lumbar Spine, Spine, vol.28, issue.19, pp.2192-2199, 2003.
DOI : 10.1097/01.BRS.0000084877.88192.8E

H. Wilke, Biomechanical effect of different lumbar interspinous implants on flexibility and intradiscal pressure, European Spine Journal, vol.203, issue.8, pp.1049-56, 2008.
DOI : 10.1097/01.brs.0000158876.51771.f8

C. Wiseman, The Effect of an Interspinous Process Implant on Facet Loading during Extension. Spine, Apr, vol.1530, issue.8, pp.903-910, 2005.

B. Lazaro, Biomechanics of a Novel Minimally Invasive Lumbar Interspinous Spacer, Operative Neurosurgery, vol.66, 2010.
DOI : 10.1227/01.NEU.0000348561.59062.A2

V. Lafage, New Interspinous Implant Evaluation Using an in Vitro Biomechanical Study Combined with a Finite-Element Analysis. Spine, Jul, vol.1532, issue.16, pp.1706-1719, 2007.

A. Fabrizi, R. Maina, and L. Schiabello, Interspinous spacers in the treatment of degenerative lumbar spinal disease: our experience with DIAM and Aperius devices, European Spine Journal, vol.15, issue.Suppl 3, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/s00586-011-1753-2

K. Lu, Reduction in adjacent-segment degeneration after multilevel posterior lumbar interbody fusion with proximal DIAM implantation, Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, vol.23, issue.2, pp.190-196, 2015.
DOI : 10.3171/2014.12.SPINE14666

J. Zucherman, A Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized Trial Evaluating the X STOP Interspinous Process Decompression System for the Treatment of Neurogenic Intermittent Claudication, Spine, vol.30, issue.12, pp.1351-1359, 2005.
DOI : 10.1097/01.brs.0000166618.42749.d1

F. Puzzilli, Interspinous spacer decompression (X-STOP) for lumbar spinal stenosis and degenerative disk disease: A multicenter study with a minimum 3-year follow-up, Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, vol.124, issue.124, pp.166-74, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.clineuro.2014.07.004

B. Strömqvist, X-Stop Versus Decompressive Surgery for Lumbar Neurogenic Intermittent Claudication, Spine, vol.38, issue.17, 2013.
DOI : 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31828ba413

G. Lønne, Minimally Invasive Decompression Versus X-Stop in Lumbar Spinal Stenosis, Spine, vol.40, issue.2
DOI : 10.1097/BRS.0000000000000691

O. Verhoof, High failure rate of the interspinous distraction device (X-Stop) for the treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis caused by degenerative spondylolisthesis, European Spine Journal, vol.30, issue.2, pp.188-92, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/s00586-007-0492-x

D. Kim, Occult Spinous Process Fractures Associated with Interspinous Process Spacers. Spine, Jul, vol.1536, issue.16, pp.1080-1085, 2011.
DOI : 10.1097/brs.0b013e318204066a

A. Richter, Does an interspinous device (Coflex???) improve the outcome of decompressive surgery in lumbar spinal stenosis? One-year follow up of a prospective case control study of 60 patients, European Spine Journal, vol.17, issue.2, pp.283-89, 2010.
DOI : 10.1007/s00586-009-1229-9

A. Richter, Two-year Follow-up After Decompressive Surgery With and Without Implantation of an Interspinous Device for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis, Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques, vol.27, issue.6, pp.336-377, 2014.
DOI : 10.1097/BSD.0b013e31825f7203

M. Surace, Lumbar spinal stenosis treatment with aperius perclid interspinous system, European Spine Journal, vol.30, issue.8, pp.69-74
DOI : 10.1007/s00586-012-2222-2

J. Meirhaeghe, Clinical evaluation of the preliminary safety and effectiveness of a minimally invasive interspinous process device APERIUS?? in degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis with symptomatic neurogenic intermittent claudication, European Spine Journal, vol.20, issue.3, p.2012
DOI : 10.1007/s00586-012-2330-z

F. Beyer, Percutaneous interspinous spacer versus open decompression: a 2-year follow-up of clinical outcome and quality of life, European Spine Journal, vol.89, issue.9, pp.2015-2036, 2013.
DOI : 10.1007/s00586-013-2790-9

C. Xu, Complications in Degenerative Lumbar Disease Treated with a Dynamic Interspinous Spacer (Coflex) Int Orthop, pp.2199-2204, 2013.

D. Kim, Occult Spinous Process Fractures Associated with Interspinous Process Spacers Spine, Jul, vol.1536, issue.16, pp.1080-1085, 2011.

G. Truchly and W. Thompson, Posterolateral Fusion of the Lumbosacral Spine, The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, vol.44, issue.3, pp.505-517, 1962.
DOI : 10.2106/00004623-196244030-00008

J. Dimar, Two-Year Fusion and Clinical Outcomes in 224 Patients Treated with a

P. Ekman, A prospective randomised study on the long-term effect of lumbar fusion on adjacent disc degeneration, European Spine Journal, vol.38, issue.12, pp.1175-86, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/s00586-009-0947-3

A. Hilibrand and M. Robbins, Adjacent segment degeneration and adjacent segment disease: the consequences of spinal fusion?, The Spine Journal, vol.4, issue.6, pp.835-878, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.spinee.2004.07.007

K. Radcliff, Adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine following different treatment interventions, The Spine Journal, vol.13, issue.10, pp.1339-1388, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.spinee.2013.03.020

J. Cardoso, Does Superior-Segment Facet Violation or Laminectomy Destabilize the Adjacent Level in Lumbar Transpedicular Fixation? An in Vitro Human Cadaveric Assessment. Spine, pp.2868-73, 2008.

M. Kumar, A. Baklanov, and D. Chopin, Correlation between sagittal plane changes and adjacent segment degeneration following lumbar spine fusion, European Spine Journal, vol.10, issue.4, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/s005860000239

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3611507

P. Guigui and D. Chopin, Assessment of the use of the Graf ligamentoplasty in the surgical treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis. Apropos of a series of 26 patients, Rev Chir Orthop, vol.80, issue.8, pp.681-88, 1994.

S. Hadlow, The Graf Ligamentoplasty Procedure Comparison with Posterolateral Fusion in the Management of Low Back Pain. Spine, pp.1172-79, 1998.

A. Gardner and K. Pande, Graf ligamentoplasty: a 7-year follow-up, Eur Spine J, 2002.
DOI : 10.1007/978-3-642-18508-3_16

T. Markwalder and M. Wenger, Dynamic stabilization of lumbar motion segments by use of Graf's ligaments: results with an average follow-up of 7.4 years in 39 highly selected, consecutive patients, Acta Neurochirurgica, vol.145, issue.3, pp.209-214, 2003.
DOI : 10.1007/s00701-002-1056-9

C. Yongsoo, K. Kisoo, and S. Kwangyoung, Adjacent Segment Instability after Treatment with a

G. Dubois, Dynamic stabilization of the lumbar spine with dynesys. Montpellier: Sauramps, 2006.

S. Freudiger, G. Dubois, and M. Lorrain, Dynamic neutralisation of the lumbar spine confirmed on a new lumbar spine simulator in vitro, Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, vol.119, issue.3-4, pp.127-159, 1999.
DOI : 10.1007/s004020050375

T. Stoll, G. Dubois, and O. Schwarzenbach, The Dynamic Neutralization System for the Spine

. Multi-center, Study of a Novel Non-Fusion System, Eur Spine J, vol.11, issue.2, pp.170-78, 2002.

L. Fay, Dynamic stabilization for degenerative spondylolisthesis: Evaluation of radiographic and clinical outcomes, Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, vol.115, issue.5, pp.535-576
DOI : 10.1016/j.clineuro.2012.05.036

Y. Hu, Short-Term Clinical Observation of the Dynesys Neutralization System for the Treatment of Degenerative Disease of the Lumbar Vertebrae. Orthopaedic Surgery, 2011.

D. Grob, Clinical Experience With the Dynesys Semirigid Fixation System for the Lumbar Spine, Spine, vol.30, issue.3
DOI : 10.1097/01.brs.0000152584.46266.25

J. Lutz, P. Otten, and G. Maestretti, Late infections after dynamic stabilization of the lumbar spine with Dynesys, European Spine Journal, vol.128, issue.12, pp.2573-2582, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/s00586-012-2366-0

M. Putzier, Dynamic stabilization adjacent to single-level fusion: Part II. No clinical benefit for asymptomatic, initially degenerated adjacent segments after 6??years follow-up, European Spine Journal, vol.32, issue.Suppl 2
DOI : 10.1007/s00586-010-1517-4

E. Hoff, Sequestrectomy With Additional Transpedicular Dynamic Stabilization for the Treatment of Lumbar Disc Herniation, Spine, vol.38, issue.11, pp.887-95, 2013.
DOI : 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31828150a6

J. Lutz, P. Otten, and G. Maestretti, Late infections after dynamic stabilization of the lumbar spine with Dynesys, European Spine Journal, vol.128, issue.12, pp.2573-2582, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/s00586-012-2366-0

M. Prud-'homme, Clinical Outcomes and Complications after Pedicle-Anchored Dynamic or Hybrid Lumbar Spine Stabilization: A Systematic Literature Review, J Spinal Disord Tech, 2014.

C. Chien, Kinematic and Mechanical Comparisons of Lumbar Hybrid Fixation Using Dynesys and Cosmic Systems. Spine, pp.878-84, 2014.

A. Maleci, Nonfusion stabilization of the degenerative lumbar spine, Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, vol.15, issue.2, pp.151-58, 2011.
DOI : 10.3171/2011.3.SPINE0969

M. Stoffel, Pedicle screw-based dynamic stabilization of the thoracolumbar spine with the Cosmic??-system: a prospective observation, Acta Neurochirurgica, vol.30, issue.Suppl 2, pp.835-878, 2010.
DOI : 10.1007/s00701-009-0583-z

T. Kaner, Clinical outcomes of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis treated with lumbar decompression and the Cosmic ???semi-rigid??? posterior system, SAS Journal, vol.4, issue.4, pp.99-106, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.esas.2010.09.003

A. Ozer, Dynamic Lumbar Pedicle Screw-Rod Stabilization: Two-Year Follow-Up and Comparison with Fusion. The Open Orthopaedics Journal, pp.137-178, 2010.

Y. Yang, Comparison of clinical and radiographic results between isobar posterior dynamic stabilization and posterior lumbar inter-body fusion for lumbar degenerative disease: A four-year retrospective study, Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, vol.136, pp.100-106, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.clineuro.2015.06.003

E. Hoff, Sequestrectomy with Additional Transpedicular Dynamic Stabilization for the Treatment of Lumbar Disc Herniation. Spine, pp.887-95, 2013.

M. Putzier, Dynamic Stabilization Adjacent to Single-Level Fusion, Eur Spine J, 2010.

K. Radcliff, Adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine following different treatment interventions, The Spine Journal, vol.13, issue.10, pp.1339-1388, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.spinee.2013.03.020

C. Ren, Adjacent segment degeneration and disease after lumbar fusion compared with motion-preserving procedures: a meta-analysis, European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology, vol.31, issue.16 Suppl, pp.245-53
DOI : 10.1007/s00590-014-1445-9

Z. Zhou, Can posterior dynamic stabilization reduce the risk of adjacent segment deterioration?, Turkish Neurosurgery, vol.23, issue.5, pp.579-89, 2013.
DOI : 10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.6573-12.1

C. Bono and C. Lee, Critical Analysis of Trends in Fusion for Degenerative Disc Disease Over the Past 20 Years, Spine, vol.29, issue.4, pp.455-63, 1976.
DOI : 10.1097/01.BRS.0000090825.94611.28

P. Park, H. Garton, V. Gala, J. Hoff, and J. Mcgillicuddy, Adjacent Segment Disease after Lumbar or Lumbosacral Fusion: Review of the Literature, Spine, vol.29, issue.17, pp.1938-1982, 2004.
DOI : 10.1097/01.brs.0000137069.88904.03

G. Cheh, K. Bridwell, L. Lenke, J. Buchowski, M. Daubs et al., Adjacent Segment Disease FollowingLumbar/Thoracolumbar Fusion With Pedicle Screw Instrumentation, Spine, vol.32, issue.20, pp.2253-2260, 2007.
DOI : 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31814b2d8e

C. Ou, T. Lee, T. Lee, and Y. Huang, Impact of Body Mass Index on Adjacent Segment Disease After Lumbar Fusion for Degenerative Spine Disease, Neurosurgery, vol.76, issue.4, pp.396-402
DOI : 10.1227/NEU.0000000000000627

H. Nakashima, N. Kawakami, T. Tsuji, T. Ohara, Y. Suzuki et al., Adjacent segment disease after posterior lumbar interbody fusion. Spine, Jul, vol.1540, issue.14, pp.831-872, 2015.

K. Radcliff, P. Curry, A. Hilibrand, C. Kepler, J. Lurie et al., Risk for Adjacent Segment and Same Segment Reoperation After Surgery for Lumbar Stenosis, Spine, vol.38, issue.7, pp.531-540, 1976.
DOI : 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31827c99f0

J. Sénégas, Surgery of the intervertebral ligaments, alternative to arthrodesis in the treatment of degenerative instabilities, Acta Orthop Belg, vol.57, p.221, 1991.

M. Grevitt, A. Gardner, J. Spilsbury, I. Shackleford, R. Baskerville et al., The Graf stabilisation system: early results in 50 patients, European Spine Journal, vol.68, issue.3, pp.169-75, 1995.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00298241

B. Haddad, D. Makki, S. Konan, D. Park, W. Khan et al., Dynesys dynamic stabilization: Less good outcome than lumbar fusion at 4-year follow-up, Acta Orthop Belg, vol.79, issue.1, pp.97-103, 2012.

S. Yu, C. Yen, C. Wu, F. Kao, Y. Kao et al., Radiographic and clinical results of posterior dynamic stabilization for the treatment of multisegment degenerative disc disease with a minimum follow-up of 3??years, Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, vol.30, issue.Suppl 1, pp.583-592, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/s00402-012-1460-4

T. Kaner, S. Dalbayrak, T. Oktenoglu, M. Sasani, A. Aydin et al., Comparison of Posterior Dynamic and Posterior Rigid Transpedicular Stabilization with Fusion to Treat Degenerative Spondylolisthesis, Orthopedics, vol.33, issue.5, pp.1433-1437, 2010.
DOI : 10.3928/01477447-20100329-09

A. Ozer, N. Crawford, M. Sasani, T. Oktenoglu, H. Bozkus et al., Dynamic lumbar pedicle screw-rod stabilization: Two-year follow-up and comparison with fusion. The Open Orthopaedics Journal, pp.137-178, 2010.

L. Huec, J. Aunoble, S. Philippe, L. , and N. P. , Pelvic parameters: origin and significance, European Spine Journal, vol.35, issue.22, pp.564-71, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/s00586-011-1940-1

I. Posner, A. White, . Iii, W. Edwards, and W. Hayes, A Biomechanical Analysis of the Clinical Stability of the Lumbar and Lumbosacral Spine, Spine, vol.7, issue.4, pp.374-89, 1982.
DOI : 10.1097/00007632-198207000-00008

M. Hasz, Diagnostic testing for degenerative disc disease Advances in Orthopedics

M. Kumar, A. Baklanov, and D. Chopin, Correlation between sagittal plane changes and adjacent segment degeneration following lumbar spine fusion, European Spine Journal, vol.10, issue.4, pp.314-323, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/s005860000239

M. Rao and S. Cao, Artificial total disc replacement versus fusion for lumbar degenerative disc disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, vol.12, issue.Suppl 3, pp.149-58, 2014.
DOI : 10.1007/s00402-013-1905-4

Y. Wu, A Meta-Analysis of Artificial Total Disc Replacement versus Fusion for Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease, Eur Spine J, vol.19, issue.8, pp.1250-61, 2010.

C. Ko, H. Tsai, W. Huang, J. Wu, Y. Chen et al., Screw loosening in the Dynesys stabilization system: radiographic evidence and effect on outcomes, Neurosurgical Focus, vol.28, issue.6, 2010.
DOI : 10.3171/2010.3.FOCUS1052

J. Siewe, J. Bredow, J. Oppermann, T. Koy, S. Delank et al., Evaluation of efficacy of a new hybrid fusion device: a randomized, two-centre controlled trial, BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, vol.32, issue.29, pp.294-337, 2014.
DOI : 10.1002/sim.5990