Distinguer et représenter les minorités nomades du Proche-Orient ottoman (1673-1831) : la représentation occidentale des peuples bédouins, kurdes, turcomans et yézidis, d’après les sources de langue française

Abstract : The traveller is shown as an immutable character in its natural setting. The nomad people remains a just a part of the representations of the Westerners. At the opposite of sedentarism, nomadism refers to a long release form of the human condition of any civilizational constraints. Accustomed to migrations and move from one place to another, the nomad is not so far detached from their identity and sense of belonging to a territory. This study extends from 1673 to 1831 and aims to highlight the performance of the nomadic Kurdish, Bedouin, Turkoman and Yezidi people in the Ottoman East, according to Western sources. Western writers often gave stereotyped pictures about the nomads, and their observation appeared before the reasoning. Often neglected by researchers, travel stories permits to show a complex reality about these people. Otherness appears in these stories as a subject of discourse in order to define men and groups. Travel books reveal anecdotes and descriptions from which emerges a representation of nomads. The authors take a position on the civilizational and cultural of the peoples which are always described on conflict with the Ottoman power. These attempts show a self-surpassing of the authors. Going beyond the particularities, beyond the intellectual framework of eighteenth and nineteenth century and the so called leader European civilization. How could authors like Carsten Niebuhr, Laurent d'Arvieux, Constantin-François Volney or Joseph Pitton de Tournefort perceived nomadic populations of the Ottoman East ? Which scholars looking did they have on these people ? What's the purpose of these descriptions ? The double experience of traveling and describe, in a time marked by the imprint of the philosophers of the Enlightenment, has generated a reductive and stereotypical representation. Within this framework, the imagination leads the knowledge.
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Master Thesis
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Alexandre Maden. Distinguer et représenter les minorités nomades du Proche-Orient ottoman (1673-1831) : la représentation occidentale des peuples bédouins, kurdes, turcomans et yézidis, d’après les sources de langue française. Sciences de l'Homme et Société. 2015. ⟨dumas-01330896⟩

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