C. En-moyenne-bunker, E. Berson, W. Bromley, R. Hayes, and T. Roderick, Prevalence of Retinitis Pigmentosa in Maine, American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol.97, issue.3, pp.357-65, 1984.
DOI : 10.1016/0002-9394(84)90636-6

J. Grøndahl, Estimation of prognosis and prevalence of retinitis pigmentosa and Usher syndrome in Norway, Clinical Genetics, vol.39, issue.Suppl138, pp.255-64, 1987.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1399-0004.1987.tb02804.x

C. Nájera, J. Millán, M. Beneyto, and F. Prieto, Epidemiology of retinitis pigmentosa in the valencian community (Spain), Genetic Epidemiology, vol.26, issue.1, pp.37-46, 1995.
DOI : 10.1002/gepi.1370120105

M. Haim, The epidemiology of retinitis pigmentosa in Denmark, Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica, vol.105
DOI : 10.1046/j.1395-3907.2002.00001.x

A. Geller and P. Sieving, Assessment of foveal cone photoreceptors in

A. Pinckers, A. Van-aarem, and J. Keunen, Colour vision in retinitis pigmentosa, International Ophthalmology, vol.7, issue.3
DOI : 10.1007/BF00942928

P. Sieving and G. Fishman, Refractive errors of retinitis pigmentosa patients., British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol.62, issue.3
DOI : 10.1136/bjo.62.3.163

J. Heckenlively, The Frequency of Posterior Subcapsular Cataract in the Hereditary Retinal Degenerations, American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol.93, issue.6, pp.733-741, 1982.
DOI : 10.1016/0002-9394(82)90469-X

G. Auffarth, M. Tetz, H. Krastel, A. Blankenagel, and H. Völcker, Complicated cataracts in various forms of retinitis pigmentosa. Type and incidence], Ophthalmol Z Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges, vol.94, issue.9, pp.642-648, 1997.

G. Fishman, R. Anderson, and P. Lourenco, Prevalence of posterior subcapsular lens opacities in patients with retinitis pigmentosa., British Journal of Ophthalmology, vol.69, issue.4, 1985.
DOI : 10.1136/bjo.69.4.263

Z. Li, D. Possin, and A. Milam, Histopathology of Bone Spicule Pigmentation in Retinitis Pigmentosa, Ophthalmology, vol.102, issue.5, pp.805-821, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/S0161-6420(95)30953-0

S. Gartner, Drusen of the Optic Disk in Retinitis Pigmentosa, American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol.103, issue.6
DOI : 10.1016/S0002-9394(14)74418-6

T. Shiono, M. Noro, and M. Tamai, Presumed drusen of optic nerve head in siblings with Usher syndrome, Jpn J Ophthalmol, vol.35, issue.3, pp.300-305, 1991.

E. Loukianou, N. Kisma, and B. Pal, Evolution of an Astrocytic Hamartoma of the

M. Marmor, The Electroretinogram in Retinitis Pigmentosa, Archives of Ophthalmology, vol.97, issue.7, pp.1300-1304, 1960.
DOI : 10.1001/archopht.1979.01020020042009

E. Berson, Electroretinographic findings in retinitis pigmentosa, Jpn J

K. Holopigian, V. Greenstein, W. Seiple, and R. Carr, Rates of Change Differ among Measures of Visual Function in Patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa, Ophthalmology, vol.103, issue.3, pp.398-405, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/S0161-6420(96)30679-9

C. Difranco, A randomized trial of vitamin A and vitamin E supplementation for retinitis pigmentosa, Arch Ophthalmol Chic Ill, vol.111, issue.6, pp.761-72, 1960.

E. Berson, Retinitis pigmentosa. The Friedenwald Lecture, Invest Ophthalmol

M. Moschos, I. Chatziralli, G. Verriopoulos, A. Triglianos, D. Ladas et al., Correlation between optical coherence tomography and multifocal electroretinogram findings with visual acuity in retinitis pigmentosa, Clinical Ophthalmology, vol.7, pp.2073-2081, 2013.
DOI : 10.2147/OPTH.S50752

M. Marmor, A. Fulton, G. Holder, Y. Miyake, M. Brigell et al., ISCEV Standard for full-field clinical electroretinography (2008 update), Documenta Ophthalmologica, vol.108, issue.1, pp.69-77, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/s10633-008-9155-4

M. Sandberg, R. Brockhurst, A. Gaudio, and E. Berson, The Association between Visual Acuity and Central Retinal Thickness in Retinitis Pigmentosa, Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science, vol.46, issue.9, pp.3349-54, 2005.
DOI : 10.1167/iovs.04-1383

C. Moon, T. Park, and Y. Ohn, Association between multifocal electroretinograms, optical coherence tomography and central visual sensitivity in advanced retinitis pigmentosa, Documenta Ophthalmologica, vol.39, issue.12, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/s10633-012-9342-1

J. Chhablani, G. Jonnadula, S. Rao, P. Venkata, A. Jalali et al., Choroidal thickness profile in Retinitis Pigmentosa ??? Correlation with outer retinal structures, Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology, vol.30, issue.1
DOI : 10.1016/j.sjopt.2015.09.003

M. Chung, H. Hwang, J. Kim, J. Yoon, and Y. , Preserved functional and structural integrity of the papillomacular area correlates with better visual acuity in retinitis pigmentosa Eye Lond Engl Optical coherence tomography in the diagnosis and monitoring of cystoid macular edema in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Retina Phila Pa, pp.922-929, 2006.

C. Van-woerkom and S. Ferrucci, Sector retinitis pigmentosa, Optometry - Journal of the American Optometric Association, vol.76, issue.5
DOI : 10.1016/S1529-1839(05)70314-6

P. Sectorial-retinitis, Case Rep Ophthalmol Med [Internet], p.2013, 2016.

P. Mathur and Y. J. , Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3677001/ 33 Usher syndrome: Hearing loss, retinal degeneration and associated abnormalities, Biochim Biophys Acta BBA -Mol Basis, 2013.

D. Hartong, E. Berson, and T. Dryja, Retinitis pigmentosa. The Lancet, Nov, vol.24368, issue.9549, pp.1795-809, 2006.

E. Suspitsin and E. Imyanitov, Bardet-Biedl Syndrome, Molecular Syndromology, vol.7, issue.2, p.2016
DOI : 10.1159/000445491

M. Zinkernagel and R. Maclaren, Recent advances and future prospects in choroideremia, Clinical Ophthalmology, vol.9, pp.2195-200, 2015.
DOI : 10.2147/OPTH.S65732

S. Kim, D. Lim, J. Kim, and S. Kang, Gyrate Atrophy of the Choroid and Retina Diagnosed by Ornithine-??-aminotransferase Gene Analysis: A Case Report, Korean Journal of Ophthalmology, vol.27, issue.5, pp.388-91, 2013.
DOI : 10.3341/kjo.2013.27.5.388

E. Papavasileiou, S. Younis, V. Zygoura, C. Quijano, and T. Jackson, Ritonavirassociated toxicity mimicking retinitis pigmentosa in an hiv-infected patient on highly active antiretroviral therapy, Retin Cases Brief Rep. Mansergh FC, vol.39, 2009.

K. Kajiwara, E. Berson, and T. Dryja, Digenic retinitis pigmentosa due to mutations at the unlinked peripherin/RDS and ROM1 loci. Science, pp.1604-1612, 1994.

S. Daiger, S. Bowne, L. Sullivan, M. Naash, N. Peachey et al., Perspective on Genes and Mutations Causing Retinitis Pigmentosa Lightinduced acceleration of photoreceptor degeneration in transgenic mice expressing mutant rhodopsin, Arch Ophthalmol. Feb Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, vol.12537, issue.25, pp.151-159, 1996.

C. Hamel, Retinitis pigmentosa, Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, vol.1, issue.1, p.40, 2006.
DOI : 10.1186/1750-1172-1-40

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00122147

S. Fliesler and R. Anderson, Chemistry and metabolism of lipids in the vertebrate retina, Progress in Lipid Research, vol.22, issue.2, pp.79-131, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/0163-7827(83)90004-8

D. Hoffman, K. Locke, D. Wheaton, G. Fish, R. Spencer et al., A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation for X-linked retinitis pigmentosa, Am J Ophthalmol, 2004.

E. Berson, B. Rosner, M. Sandberg, C. Weigel-difranco, A. Moser et al., Further Evaluation of Docosahexaenoic Acid in Patients With RetinitisPigmentosa Receiving Vitamin A Treatment, Archives of Ophthalmology, vol.122, issue.9, pp.1306-1320, 1960.
DOI : 10.1001/archopht.122.9.1306

Y. Wang, Docosahexaenoic Acid Slows Visual Field Progression in X-Linked Retinitis Pigmentosa: Ancillary Outcomes of the DHAX Trial, Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, vol.56, issue.11, pp.6646-53, 2015.

M. Dikopf, C. Chow, W. Mieler, and E. Tu, Cataract Extraction Outcomes and the Prevalence of Zonular Insufficiency in Retinitis Pigmentosa, American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol.156, issue.1
DOI : 10.1016/j.ajo.2013.02.002

M. Bruno, M. Nebbioso, E. Rigoni, A. Gagliardi, and E. Vingolo, Posterior capsule opacity in Retinitis Pigmentosa according to different biomaterials of intraocular lenses: Our clinical experience, Clin Ter, vol.166, issue.5, pp.191-194, 2015.

G. Fishman, L. Gilbert, R. Fiscella, A. Kimura, and L. Jampol, Acetazolamide for Treatment of Chronic Macular Edema in Retinitis Pigmentosa, Archives of Ophthalmology, vol.107, issue.10, pp.1445-52, 1960.
DOI : 10.1001/archopht.1989.01070020519031

DOI : 10.1097/00006982-199705000-00009

S. Ahn, K. Kim, S. Woo, and K. Park, The Effect of an Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant for Cystoid Macular Edema in Retinitis Pigmentosa: A Case Report and Literature Review, Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers and Imaging Retina, vol.45, issue.2, 2014.
DOI : 10.3928/23258160-20140131-03

G. Moustafa, M. Moschos, J. Sahel, M. Fabre, M. Simonutti et al., Intravitreal aflibercept (Eylea) injection for cystoid macular edema secondary to retinitis pigmentosa -a first case report and short review of the literature Retinitis pigmentosa: rod photoreceptor rescue by a calcium, BMC Ophthalmol, vol.15, 2015.

S. Mohand-said, A. Deudon-combe, D. Hicks, M. Simonutti, V. Forster et al., Normal retina releases a diffusible factor stimulating cone survival in the retinal degeneration mouse, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.95, issue.14, pp.8357-62, 1998.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.95.14.8357

A. Caffé, A. Söderpalm, I. Holmqvist, and T. Van-veen, A combination of CNTF and BDNF rescues rd photoreceptors but changes rod differentiation in the presence of RPE in retinal explants, Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, vol.42, issue.1, pp.275-82, 2001.

M. Delyfer, M. Simonutti, N. Neveux, T. Léveillard, and J. Sahel, Does GDNF exert its neuroprotective effects on photoreceptors in the rd1 retina through the glial glutamate transporter GLAST?, Mol Vis, vol.11, pp.677-87, 2005.

D. Birch, L. Bennett, J. Duncan, R. Weleber, and M. Pennesi, Intravitreous transplantation of encapsulated fibroblasts secreting the human fibroblast growth factor 2 delays photoreceptor cell degeneration in Royal College of Surgeons rats Long-term follow-up of patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) receiving intraocular ciliary neurotrophic factor implants, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, pp.3126-3157, 1999.

J. Bennett, Y. Zeng, R. Bajwa, L. Klatt, Y. Li et al., Adenovirus-mediated delivery of rhodopsin-promoted bcl-2 results in a delay in photoreceptor cell death in the rd/rd mouse, Gene Therapy, vol.5, issue.9, pp.1156-64, 1998.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.gt.3300733

C. Liu, Y. Li, M. Peng, A. Laties, and R. Wen, Activation of caspase-3 in the retina of transgenic rats with the rhodopsin mutation s334ter during photoreceptor degeneration, J Neurosci Off J Soc Neurosci Jun, vol.1519, issue.12, pp.4778-85, 1999.

M. Seiler and R. Aramant, Cell replacement and visual restoration by retinal sheet transplants, Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, vol.31, issue.6, pp.661-87
DOI : 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2012.06.003

L. Li and J. Turner, Inherited retinal dystrophy in the RCS rat: Prevention of photoreceptor degeneration by pigment epithelial cell transplantation, Experimental Eye Research, vol.47, issue.6, pp.911-918, 1988.
DOI : 10.1016/0014-4835(88)90073-5

L. Li and J. Turner, Optimal conditions for long-term photoreceptor cell rescue in RCS rats: The necessity for healthy RPE transplants, Experimental Eye Research, vol.52, issue.6, pp.669-79, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0014-4835(91)90019-B

H. Sheedlo, L. Li, and J. Turner, Functional and structural characteristics of photoreceptor cells rescued in RPE-cell grafted retinas of RCS dystrophic rats, Experimental Eye Research, vol.48, issue.6, pp.841-54, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/0014-4835(89)90067-5

N. Radtke, R. Aramant, M. Seiler, H. Petry, and D. Pidwell, Vision Change After Sheet Transplant of Fetal Retina With Retinal PigmentEpithelium to a Patient With Retinitis Pigmentosa, Archives of Ophthalmology, vol.122, issue.8, pp.1159-65, 1960.
DOI : 10.1001/archopht.122.8.1159

S. Al-shamekh and J. Goldberg, Retinal repair with induced pluripotent stem cells, Translational Research, vol.163, issue.4, pp.377-86
DOI : 10.1016/j.trsl.2013.11.002

Y. Huang, V. Enzmann, and S. Ildstad, Stem Cell-Based Therapeutic Applications in Retinal Degenerative Diseases, Stem Cell Reviews and Reports, vol.82, issue.3, pp.434-479, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/s12015-010-9192-8

B. Jones and R. Marc, Retinal remodeling during retinal degeneration, Experimental Eye Research, vol.81, issue.2, pp.123-160, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.exer.2005.03.006

B. Jones, R. Pfeiffer, W. Ferrell, C. Watt, M. Marmor et al., Retinal remodeling in human retinitis pigmentosa, Experimental Eye Research, vol.150, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.exer.2016.03.018

A. Hodgkin and A. Huxley, Propagation of Electrical Signals Along Giant Nerve Fibres, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.140, issue.899, pp.177-83, 1952.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1952.0054

G. Brindley and W. Lewin, The sensations produced by electrical stimulation of the visual cortex, The Journal of Physiology, vol.196, issue.2, pp.479-93, 1968.
DOI : 10.1113/jphysiol.1968.sp008519

R. Fernandes, B. Diniz, R. Ribeiro, and M. Humayun, Artificial vision through neuronal stimulation, Neuroscience Letters, vol.519, issue.2, pp.122-130
DOI : 10.1016/j.neulet.2012.01.063

Y. Luo and L. Da-cruz, The Argus?? II Retinal Prosthesis System, Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, vol.50, pp.89-107, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2015.09.003

S. Brummer and M. Turner, Electrical stimulation of the nervous system: The principle of safe charge injection with noble metal electrodes, Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, vol.2, issue.1, pp.13-25, 1975.
DOI : 10.1016/0302-4598(75)80002-X

A. Ahuja and M. Behrend, The Argus??? II retinal prosthesis: Factors affecting patient selection for implantation, Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, vol.36, pp.1-23
DOI : 10.1016/j.preteyeres.2013.01.002

M. Humayun, Improving the spatial resolution of epiretinal implants by increasing stimulus pulse duration. Sci Transl Med, ):318ra203. 82. Retina Implant Care -Basics, Procedures and Follow-up [Internet], 2015.

E. Zrenner, Fighting Blindness with Microelectronics, Science Translational Medicine, vol.5, issue.210, pp.210-226, 2013.
DOI : 10.1126/scitranslmed.3007399

S. Garg and J. Federman, Optogenetics, visual prosthesis and electrostimulation for retinal dystrophies, Current Opinion in Ophthalmology, vol.24, issue.5, pp.407-421, 2013.
DOI : 10.1097/ICU.0b013e328363829b

A. Chuang, C. Margo, and P. Greenberg, Retinal Implants, JAMA Ophthalmology, vol.132, issue.1
DOI : 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2013.5356

I. Argus and . Retinal, Prosthesis System Dry AMD Feasibility Study Protocol -Full Text View -ClinicalTrials.gov [Internet]. [cited Available from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02227498?term=NCT02227498&rank=1 87, 2016.

H. Stronks and G. Dagnelie, The functional performance of the Argus II retinal prosthesis, Expert Review of Medical Devices, vol.11, issue.1, pp.23-30
DOI : 10.1586/17434440.2014.862494

M. Govare, J. Korobelnik, P. Barale, A. Garrigues, L. Fiorellini et al., Imagerie postop??ratoire de la pose d???une proth??se ??pi-r??tinienne ARGUS?? II chez une patiente atteinte de r??tinite pigmentaire, Journal Fran??ais d'Ophtalmologie, vol.39, issue.1, pp.114-119, 2016.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jfo.2015.07.007

K. Stingl, K. Bartz-schmidt, D. Besch, A. Braun, A. Bruckmann et al., Five-Year Safety and Performance Results from the Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System Clinical Trial. Ophthalmology, 2016.

K. Bartz-schmidt, D. Besch, C. Chee, C. Cottriall, and F. Gekeler, Artificial vision with wirelessly powered subretinal electronic implant alpha-IMS, Proc Biol Sci, vol.280, 1757.

Y. Luo, L. Cruz, and . Da, A review and update on the current status of retinal prostheses (bionic eye), British Medical Bulletin, vol.109, issue.1, pp.31-44, 2014.
DOI : 10.1093/bmb/ldu002

A. Ahuja, J. Yeoh, J. Dorn, A. Caspi, V. Wuyyuru et al., du code de la sécurité sociale du système de prothèse épirétinienne ARGUS II. 95

K. Rohrschneider, Determination of the Location of the Fovea on the Fundus, Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science, vol.45, issue.9
DOI : 10.1167/iovs.03-1157

H. Kolb, Facts and Figures Concerning the Human Retina

E. Fernandez and R. Nelson, Webvision: The Organization of the Retina and Visual System [Internet] Salt Lake City (UT): University of Utah Health Sciences Center Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books, Humayun MS, vol.98, 1995.

A. Matet, N. Amar, S. Mohand-said, J. Sahel, and P. Barale, Argus II retinal prosthesis implantation with scleral flap and autogenous temporalis fascia as alternative patch graft material: a 4-year follow-up, Clinical Ophthalmology, vol.10, 2016.
DOI : 10.2147/OPTH.S112403

M. Humayun, E. De-juan, J. Weiland, G. Dagnelie, S. Katona et al., Pattern electrical stimulation of the human retina, Vision Research, vol.39, issue.15, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0042-6989(99)00052-8

C. Curcio and K. Allen, Topography of ganglion cells in human retina, The Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol.26, issue.1, pp.5-25, 1990.
DOI : 10.1002/cne.903000103

G. Roessler, T. Laube, C. Brockmann, T. Kirschkamp, B. Mazinani et al., Implantation and Explantation of a Wireless Epiretinal Retina Implant Device: Observations during the EPIRET3 Prospective Clinical Trial, Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science, vol.50, issue.6, pp.3003-3011, 2009.
DOI : 10.1167/iovs.08-2752