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Master Thesis

Effet de l'implantation de mélanges fleuris et du système de culture sur la régulation biologique en grandes cultures : application à l'évaluation d'un potentiel de prédation

Abstract : Predatory arthropods are integral part of functional biodiversity in cropland, and enable biological control of field crop pests and weeds. Quantifying their predation action in field is complex and use of sentinel preys could solve the problem. We make use of different contexts created by contrasting flower strips and cultural systems (with/without tillage and with/without insecticide) and we estimate whether it reveals a variation of aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum predation and seed of Viola arvensis predation in flowers strips and adjacent rapeseed and wheat crops. Spiders are more present in flower strips and predatory carabids are more present in crop. Aphids and seeds predation varies little between the different strips and cultural systems. It is more important in wheat crop than in rapeseed crop. Aphid predation is lower in vegetation than on the ground. Finally aphid predation is higher in flower strip and seed predation is more important 5 m away from it. Then a new prey is tested in order to improve realism of studied preys : weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. Predation rate is estimated by exposing 50 larvae per observation point, but prey attractiveness is so high that predation is almost always maximal and is not affected by considered situations. Predation rates of the different preys are not related with activity-density of predatory arthropods in wheat crop, even with a consideration for individual diet and average size of species. Finally the use of cameras to film predation is a good complement to this study because it allows to observe predators-preys interactions and highlight unexpected predators such as flies.
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Master Thesis
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Amaury Guillet. Effet de l'implantation de mélanges fleuris et du système de culture sur la régulation biologique en grandes cultures : application à l'évaluation d'un potentiel de prédation. Sciences du Vivant [q-bio]. 2017. ⟨dumas-01651106⟩

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