A. S. Levey and J. Coresh, Chronic kidney disease, Lancet Lond Engl, vol.379, issue.9811, pp.165-80, 2012.

E. Thervet, J. Zuber, R. Sberro, G. Canaud, D. Anglicheau et al.,

, Nephrol Ther, vol.7, issue.7, pp.566-81, 2011.

G. C. Oniscu, H. Brown, and J. Forsythe, Impact of cadaveric renal transplantation on survival in patients listed for transplantation, J Am Soc Nephrol JASN, vol.16, issue.6, pp.1859-65, 2005.

C. G. Rabbat, K. E. Thorpe, J. D. Russell, and D. N. Churchill, Comparison of mortality risk for dialysis patients and cadaveric first renal transplant recipients in Ontario, Canada. J Am Soc Nephrol JASN, vol.11, issue.5, pp.917-939, 2000.

S. J. Kim, E. J. Gordon, and N. R. Powe, The economics and ethics of kidney transplantation: perspectives in 2006, Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens, vol.15, issue.6, pp.593-601, 2006.

, HAS. Transplantation rénale. Accès à la liste d'attente nationale, 2017.

A. Hertig and E. Rondeau, Immunomodulation dans la greffe rénale : ce qui a changé en 20 ans. Réanimation, vol.15, pp.253-261, 2006.

, Cyclosporin in cadaveric renal transplantation: one-year follow-up of a multicentre trial, Lancet Lond Engl, vol.2, issue.8357, pp.986-995, 1983.

, Agence de la biomédecine-Le rapport annuel médical et scientifique, 2015.

, Suivi ambulatoire de l'adulte transplanté rénal au-delà de 3 mois après transplantation, HAS, 2017.

, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Transplant Work Group. KDIGO clinical practice guideline for the care of kidney transplant recipients, Am J Transplant Off J Am Soc Transplant Am Soc Transpl Surg, vol.9, issue.3, pp.1-155, 2009.

P. F. Halloran, Immunosuppressive drugs for kidney transplantation, N Engl J Med, vol.351, issue.26, pp.2715-2744, 2004.

A. Hulin, Today in molecular mechanisms of immunosuppressive drugs actions: roles of pharmacist

, Ann Pharm Fr, vol.66, issue.2, pp.102-116, 2008.

M. P. Ducharme, L. Verret, D. Brouillette, and G. Sirois, Ability of a first-pass pharmacokinetic model to characterize cyclosporine blood concentrations after administrations of Sandimmune or Neoral formulations, Ther Drug Monit, vol.20, issue.2, pp.165-71, 1998.

E. Thervet, D. Anglicheau, C. Legendre, and P. Beaune, Role of pharmacogenetics of immunosuppressive drugs in organ transplantation, Ther Drug Monit, vol.30, issue.2, pp.143-50, 2008.

K. Han, V. C. Pillai, and R. Venkataramanan, Population pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in transplant recipients, AAPS J, vol.15, issue.4, pp.901-913, 2013.

Y. Dai, K. Iwanaga, Y. S. Lin, M. F. Hebert, C. L. Davis et al., In vitro metabolism of cyclosporine A by human kidney CYP3A5, Biochem Pharmacol, vol.68, issue.9, pp.1889-902, 2004.

M. Antignac, B. Barrou, R. Farinotti, P. Lechat, and S. Urien, Population pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of tacrolimus in kidney transplant patients, Br J Clin Pharmacol, vol.64, issue.6, pp.750-757, 2007.

R. Venkataramanan, A. Swaminathan, T. Prasad, A. Jain, S. Zuckerman et al., Clinical pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus, Clin Pharmacokinet, vol.29, issue.6, pp.404-434, 1995.

E. Thervet, D. Anglicheau, B. King, M. Schlageter, B. Cassinat et al., Impact of cytochrome p450 3A5 genetic polymorphism on tacrolimus doses and concentration-to-dose ratio in renal transplant recipients, Transplantation, vol.76, issue.8, pp.1233-1238, 2003.

C. E. Staatz and S. E. Tett, Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tacrolimus in solid organ transplantation, Clin Pharmacokinet, vol.43, issue.10, pp.623-53, 2004.

D. Moes, H. Guchelaar, and J. W. De-fijter, Sirolimus and everolimus in kidney transplantation, Drug Discov Today, vol.20, issue.10, pp.1243-1252, 2015.

N. P. Van-erp, C. M. Van-herpen, D. De-wit, A. Willemsen, D. M. Burger et al., A Semi-Physiological Population Model to Quantify the Effect of Hematocrit on Everolimus Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics in Cancer Patients, Clin Pharmacokinet, vol.55, issue.11, pp.1447-56, 2016.

K. Mahalati and B. D. Kahan, Clinical pharmacokinetics of sirolimus, Clin Pharmacokinet, vol.40, issue.8, pp.573-85, 2001.

G. I. Kirchner, I. Meier-wiedenbach, and M. P. Manns, Clinical pharmacokinetics of everolimus, Clin Pharmacokinet, vol.43, issue.2, pp.83-95, 2004.

B. D. Kahan, K. L. Napoli, P. A. Kelly, J. Podbielski, I. Hussein et al., Therapeutic drug monitoring of sirolimus: correlations with efficacy and toxicity, Clin Transplant, vol.14, issue.2, pp.97-109, 2000.

N. Picard, D. Ratanasavanh, A. Prémaud, L. Meur, Y. Marquet et al., Identification of the UDPglucuronosyltransferase isoforms involved in mycophenolic acid phase II metabolism, Drug Metab Dispos Biol Fate Chem, vol.33, issue.1, pp.139-185, 2005.

L. M. Shaw, M. Figurski, M. C. Milone, J. Trofe, and R. D. Bloom, Therapeutic drug monitoring of mycophenolic acid, Clin J Am Soc Nephrol CJASN, vol.2, issue.5, pp.1062-72, 2007.

C. Legendre, J. Zuber, D. Anglicheau, L. Quintrec, M. Martinez et al.,

, Ann Urol, vol.41, issue.6, pp.276-84, 2007.

, Nulojix 250 mg, 2016.

F. Vincenti, Belatacept and Long-Term Outcomes in Kidney Transplantation, N Engl J Med, vol.374, issue.26, pp.2600-2601, 2016.

J. B. Cohen, K. C. Eddinger, K. A. Forde, P. L. Abt, and D. Sawinski, Belatacept Compared to Tacrolimus for Kidney Transplantation: A Propensity Score Matched Cohort Study, Transplantation, 2016.

J. R. Chapman, A. C. Webster, and G. Wong, Cancer in the transplant recipient. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med, vol.3, 2013.

E. A. Engels, R. M. Pfeiffer, J. F. Fraumeni, B. L. Kasiske, A. K. Israni et al., Spectrum of cancer risk among US solid organ transplant recipients, JAMA, vol.306, issue.17, pp.1891-901, 2011.

G. Wong and J. R. Chapman, Cancers after renal transplantation, Transplant Rev Orlando Fla, vol.22, issue.2, pp.141-150, 2008.

J. Adami, H. Gäbel, B. Lindelöf, K. Ekström, B. Rydh et al., Cancer risk following organ transplantation: a nationwide cohort study in Sweden, Br J Cancer, vol.89, issue.7, pp.1221-1228, 2003.

B. L. Kasiske, J. J. Snyder, D. T. Gilbertson, and C. Wang, Cancer after kidney transplantation in the United States, Am J Transplant Off J Am Soc Transplant Am Soc Transpl Surg, vol.4, issue.6, pp.905-918, 2004.

O. J. Finn, Cancer immunology, N Engl J Med, vol.358, issue.25, pp.2704-2719, 2008.

A. Mennitto, P. Grassi, R. Ratta, E. Verzoni, M. Prisciandaro et al., Nivolumab in the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma: clinical trial evidence and experience, Ther Adv Urol, vol.8, issue.5, pp.319-345, 2016.

E. K. Geissler, Post-transplantation malignancies: here today, gone tomorrow?, Nat Rev Clin Oncol, vol.12, issue.12, pp.705-722, 2015.

G. Mourad, J. Serre, C. Alméras, O. Basel, V. Garrigue et al.,

, Nephrol Ther, vol.12, issue.6, pp.468-87, 2016.

H. M. Kauffman, W. S. Cherikh, Y. Cheng, D. W. Hanto, and B. D. Kahan, Maintenance immunosuppression with target-of-rapamycin inhibitors is associated with a reduced incidence of de novo malignancies, Transplantation, vol.80, issue.7, pp.883-892, 2005.

L. Shayesteh, Y. Lu, W. L. Kuo, R. Baldocchi, T. Godfrey et al., PIK3CA is implicated as an oncogene in ovarian cancer, Nat Genet, vol.21, issue.1, pp.99-102, 1999.

M. Guba, P. Von-breitenbuch, M. Steinbauer, G. Koehl, S. Flegel et al., Rapamycin inhibits primary and metastatic tumor growth by antiangiogenesis: involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor, Nat Med, vol.8, issue.2, pp.128-163, 2002.

G. A. Knoll, M. B. Kokolo, R. Mallick, A. Beck, C. D. Buenaventura et al., Effect of sirolimus on malignancy and survival after kidney transplantation: systematic review and metaanalysis of individual patient data, BMJ, vol.349, p.6679, 2014.

Y. Lebranchu, A. Thierry, O. Toupance, P. F. Westeel, E. I. Thervet et al., Efficacy on Renal Function of Early Conversion from Cyclosporine to Sirolimus 3 Months After Renal Transplantation: Concept Study, Am J Transplant, vol.9, issue.5, pp.1115-1138, 2009.

O. Thaunat and E. Morelon, Cancer and immunosuppression: pro-and antitumoral effects of immunosuppressive drugs

, Nephrol Ther, vol.1, issue.1, pp.23-30, 2005.

M. Nauck, M. Roth, M. Tamm, O. Eickelberg, H. Wieland et al., Induction of vascular endothelial growth factor by platelet-activating factor and platelet-derived growth factor is downregulated by corticosteroids, Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol, vol.16, issue.4, pp.398-406, 1997.

A. Ozmen, G. Unek, D. Kipmen-korgun, I. Mendilcioglu, C. Sanhal et al., Glucocorticoid effects on angiogenesis are associated with mTOR pathway activity, Biotech Histochem Off Publ Biol Stain Comm, vol.91, issue.4, pp.296-306, 2016.

L. Lennard, S. Thomas, C. I. Harrington, and J. L. Maddocks, Skin cancer in renal transplant recipients is associated with increased concentrations of 6-thioguanine nucleotide in red blood cells, Br J Dermatol, vol.113, issue.6, pp.723-732, 1985.

M. Hojo, T. Morimoto, M. Maluccio, T. Asano, K. Morimoto et al., Cyclosporine induces cancer progression by a cell-autonomous mechanism, Nature, vol.397, issue.6719, pp.530-534, 1999.
DOI : 10.1038/17401

A. Basu, A. G. Contreras, D. Datta, E. Flynn, L. Zeng et al., Overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor and the development of post-transplantation cancer, Cancer Res, vol.68, issue.14, pp.5689-98, 2008.

X. Rébillard, P. Grosclaude, N. Leone, M. Velten, G. Coureau et al., Projection de l'incidence et de la mortalité par cancer urologique en France en 2012, Prog En Urol, vol.23, pp.57-65, 2013.

K. Bensalah, L. Albiges, J. Bernhard, P. Bigot, T. Bodin et al.,

, Progres En Urol J Assoc Francaise Urol Soc Francaise Urol, vol.27, issue.1, pp.27-51, 2016.

H. Moch, A. L. Cubilla, P. A. Humphrey, V. E. Reuter, and T. M. Ulbright, The 2016 WHO Classification of Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs-Part A: Renal, Penile, and Testicular Tumours, Eur Urol, vol.70, issue.1, pp.93-105, 2016.

K. Geissler, P. Fornara, C. Lautenschläger, H. Holzhausen, B. Seliger et al., Immune signature of tumor infiltrating immune cells in renal cancer, Oncoimmunology, vol.4, issue.1, p.985082, 2015.

B. Escudier, C. Porta, M. Schmidinger, N. Rioux-leclercq, A. Bex et al., Renal cell carcinoma: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up, Ann Oncol Off J Eur Soc Med Oncol, vol.27, issue.5, pp.58-68, 2016.

A. Znaor, J. Lortet-tieulent, M. Laversanne, A. Jemal, and F. Bray, International variations and trends in renal cell carcinoma incidence and mortality, Eur Urol, vol.67, issue.3, pp.519-549, 2015.

S. A. Fuhrman, L. C. Lasky, and C. Limas, Prognostic significance of morphologic parameters in renal cell carcinoma, Am J Surg Pathol, vol.6, issue.7, pp.655-63, 1982.

D. Bretheau, E. Lechevallier, M. De-fromont, M. C. Sault, M. Rampal et al., Prognostic value of nuclear grade of renal cell carcinoma. Cancer, vol.76, pp.2543-2552, 1995.

J. Brugarolas, Renal-cell carcinoma-molecular pathways and therapies, N Engl J Med, vol.356, issue.2, pp.185-192, 2007.
DOI : 10.1056/nejme068263

H. T. Cohen and F. J. Mcgovern, Renal-cell carcinoma, N Engl J Med, vol.353, issue.23, pp.2477-90, 2005.

H. L. Goel and A. M. Mercurio, VEGF targets the tumour cell, Nat Rev Cancer, vol.13, issue.12, p.871, 2013.

F. Latif, K. Tory, J. Gnarra, M. Yao, F. M. Duh et al., Identification of the von HippelLindau disease tumor suppressor gene, Science, vol.260, issue.5112, pp.1317-1337, 1993.

L. Gossage, T. Eisen, and E. R. Maher, VHL, the story of a tumour suppressor gene, Nat Rev Cancer, vol.15, issue.1, pp.55-64, 2015.

C. Network, W. M. Linehan, P. T. Spellman, C. J. Ricketts, C. J. Creighton et al., Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Papillary Renal-Cell Carcinoma, N Engl J Med, vol.374, issue.2, pp.135-180, 2016.

J. Zhang and A. Babic, Regulation of the MET oncogene: molecular mechanisms, Carcinogenesis, vol.37, issue.4, pp.345-55, 2016.

C. Porta, S. Chiellino, A. Ferrari, S. Mariucci, and W. Liguigli, Pharmacotherapy for treating metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma, Expert Opin Pharmacother, vol.18, issue.2, pp.205-221, 2017.

P. Fergelot, N. Rioux-leclercq, and J. Patard,

, Progres En Urol J Assoc Francaise Urol Soc Francaise Urol, vol.15, issue.6, pp.1021-1030, 2005.

S. Koch, S. Tugues, X. Li, L. Gualandi, and L. Claesson-welsh, Signal transduction by vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, Biochem J, vol.15, issue.2, pp.169-83, 2011.

G. Badalian, K. Derecskei, A. Szendroi, M. Szendroi, and J. Tímár, EGFR and VEGFR2 protein expressions in bone metastases of clear cell renal cancer, Anticancer Res, vol.27, issue.2, pp.889-94, 2007.

Y. Cao, L. H. Hoeppner, S. Bach, E. G. Guo, Y. Wang et al., Neuropilin-2 promotes extravasation and metastasis by interacting with endothelial ?5 integrin, Cancer Res, vol.73, issue.14, pp.4579-90, 2013.

M. Guba, C. Graeb, K. Jauch, and E. K. Geissler, Pro-and anti-cancer effects of immunosuppressive agents used in organ transplantation, Transplantation, vol.77, issue.12, pp.1777-82, 2004.

M. I. Koukourakis, D. Papazoglou, A. Giatromanolaki, G. Bougioukas, E. Maltezos et al., VEGF gene sequence variation defines VEGF gene expression status and angiogenic activity in non-small cell lung cancer, Lung Cancer Amst Neth, vol.46, issue.3, pp.293-301, 2004.

R. Kapahi, K. Guleria, V. Sambyal, M. Manjari, M. Sudan et al., Association of VEGF and VEGFR1 polymorphisms with breast cancer risk in North Indians, Tumour Biol J Int Soc Oncodevelopmental Biol Med, vol.36, issue.6, pp.4223-4257, 2015.

R. Berardi, A. Brunelli, S. Pagliaretta, V. Paolucci, A. Conti et al., Impact of VEGF, VEGFR, PDGFR, HIF and ERCC1 gene polymorphisms on thymic malignancies outcome after thymectomy, Oncotarget, vol.6, issue.22, pp.19305-19320, 2015.

L. Jain, C. A. Vargo, R. Danesi, T. M. Sissung, D. K. Price et al., The role of vascular endothelial growth factor SNPs as predictive and prognostic markers for major solid tumors, Mol Cancer Ther, vol.8, issue.9, pp.2496-508, 2009.

C. J. Watson, N. J. Webb, M. J. Bottomley, and P. E. Brenchley, Identification of polymorphisms within the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene: correlation with variation in VEGF protein production, Cytokine, vol.12, issue.8, pp.1232-1237, 2000.

X. Wu, Z. Xin, W. Zhang, J. Wu, K. Chen et al., Polymorphisms in the VEGFA promoter are associated with susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma by altering promoter activity, Int J Cancer J Int Cancer, vol.133, issue.5, pp.1085-93, 2013.

P. Sáenz-lópez, F. Vazquez, J. M. Cozar, R. Carretero, F. Garrido et al., VEGF polymorphisms are not associated with an increased risk of developing renal cell carcinoma in Spanish population, Hum Immunol, vol.74, issue.1, pp.98-103, 2013.

F. Bruyère, C. M. Hovens, M. Marson, B. F. Arcier, A. J. Costello et al., VEGF polymorphisms are associated with an increasing risk of developing renal cell carcinoma, J Urol, vol.184, issue.4, pp.1273-1281, 2010.

G. Lu, Y. Dong, Q. Zhang, L. Jiao, S. Yang et al., Predictive value of vascular endothelial growth factor polymorphisms on the risk of renal cell carcinomas: a case-control study, Tumour Biol J Int Soc Oncodevelopmental Biol Med, vol.36, issue.11, pp.8645-52, 2015.

S. Ajaz, S. Khaliq, A. Abid, A. S. Hassan, A. Hashmi et al., Association of a singlenucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of the VEGF gene with the risk of renal cell carcinoma, Genet Test Mol Biomark, vol.15, issue.9, pp.653-660, 2011.

B. Shen, Q. Qu, S. Miao, and Y. Zhang, Association between SNPs in vascular endothelial growth factor polymorphisms and risk of renal cell carcinoma: a case-control study, Genet Mol Res GMR, vol.14, issue.3, pp.11119-11144, 2015.

W. Xian, H. Zheng, and W. J. Wu, Predictive value of vascular endothelial growth factor polymorphisms on the risk of renal cell carcinomas, Genet Mol Res GMR, vol.13, issue.3, pp.7634-7676, 2015.

M. Gong, W. Dong, Z. Shi, S. Qiu, and R. Yuan, Vascular endothelial growth factor gene polymorphisms and the risk of renal cell carcinoma: Evidence from eight case-control studies, Oncotarget, vol.8, issue.5, pp.8447-58, 2017.

P. Krippl, U. Langsenlehner, W. Renner, B. Yazdani-biuki, G. Wolf et al., A common 936 C/T gene polymorphism of vascular endothelial growth factor is associated with decreased breast cancer risk, Int J Cancer, vol.106, issue.4, pp.468-71, 2003.

W. Renner, S. Kotschan, C. Hoffmann, B. Obermayer-pietsch, and E. Pilger, A common 936 C/T mutation in the gene for vascular endothelial growth factor is associated with vascular endothelial growth factor plasma levels, J Vasc Res, vol.37, issue.6, pp.443-451, 2000.

H. H. Al-habboubi, M. S. Sater, A. W. Almawi, G. M. Al-khateeb, and W. Y. Almawi, Contribution of VEGF polymorphisms to variation in VEGF serum levels in a healthy population, Eur Cytokine Netw, vol.22, issue.3, pp.154-162, 2011.

D. Minardi, G. Lucarini, M. Santoni, R. Mazzucchelli, L. Burattini et al., VEGF expression and response to sunitinib in patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma, Anticancer Res, vol.33, issue.11, pp.5017-5039, 2013.

A. Sato-k, H. T. , W. L. , L. Z. , and T. N. , Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the 3′ Untranslated Region of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene in Japanese Population with or without Renal Cell Carcinoma, Tohoku J Exp Med, vol.198, issue.3, pp.181-90, 2002.

Y. Kawai, S. Sakano, Y. Korenaga, S. Eguchi, and K. Naito, Associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the vascular endothelial growth factor gene with the characteristics and prognosis of renal cell carcinomas, Eur Urol, vol.52, issue.4, pp.1147-55, 2007.

Y. Yang and J. Chen, Predictive role of vascular endothelial growth factor polymorphisms in the survival of renal cell carcinoma patients, Genet Mol Res GMR, vol.13, issue.3, pp.5011-5018, 2014.

W. Zhong, X. Wang, B. Pan, and Z. Su, Association of vascular endothelial growth factor polymorphisms with clinical outcome of renal cell carcinoma patients, Tumour Biol J Int Soc Oncodevelopmental Biol Med, vol.35, issue.10, pp.9839-9884, 2014.

N. Ma, L. Li, and J. Cheng, Predictive value of vascular endothelial growth factor polymorphisms on the clinical outcome of renal cell carcinoma patients, Oncol Lett, vol.9, issue.2, pp.651-657, 2015.

M. Scartozzi, M. Bianconi, L. Faloppi, C. Loretelli, A. Bittoni et al., VEGF and VEGFR polymorphisms affect clinical outcome in advanced renal cell carcinoma patients receiving first-line sunitinib, Br J Cancer, vol.108, issue.5, pp.1126-1158, 2013.

J. Dornbusch, M. Walter, A. Gottschalk, A. Obaje, K. Junker et al., Evaluation of polymorphisms in angiogenesis-related genes as predictive and prognostic markers for sunitinibtreated metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients, J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, vol.142, issue.6, pp.1171-82, 2016.

J. Garcia-donas, E. E. , L. -. García, L. J. Castellano, D. E. Del-alba et al., Single nucleotide polymorphism associations with response and toxic effects in patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma treated with first-line sunitinib: a multicentre, observational, prospective study, Lancet Oncol, vol.12, issue.12, pp.1143-50, 2011.

R. Liu, X. Wang, W. Li, T. Shou, L. Zhou et al., Influence of VEGFR single nucleotide polymorphisms on the efficacy of sunitinib therapy against renal cell carcinoma, Oncol Lett, vol.13, issue.1, pp.201-206, 2017.

K. D. Steffensen, M. Waldstrøm, I. Brandslund, and A. Jakobsen, The relationship of VEGF polymorphisms with serum VEGF levels and progression-free survival in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, Gynecol Oncol, vol.117, issue.1, pp.109-125, 2010.

C. Qin, J. Chen, J. Li, X. Ju, S. Zhang et al., Variants in angiogenesis-related genes and the risk of clear cell renal cell carcinoma, Mutagenesis, vol.29, issue.6, pp.419-444, 2014.

R. J. Motzer, T. E. Hutson, G. R. Hudes, R. A. Figlin, J. Martini et al., Investigation of novel circulating proteins, germ line single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and molecular tumor markers as potential efficacy biomarkers of first-line sunitinib therapy for advanced renal cell carcinoma, Cancer Chemother Pharmacol, vol.74, issue.4, pp.739-50, 2014.

C. Berkovi?, M. ?a?ev, T. , C. Ivkovi?, T. Marout et al., High VEGF serum values are associated with locoregional spread of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), Mol Cell Endocrinol, vol.425, pp.61-69, 2016.

C. Ricketts, M. P. Zeegers, J. Lubinski, and E. R. Maher, Analysis of germline variants in CDH1, IGFBP3, MMP1, MMP3, STK15 and VEGF in familial and sporadic renal cell carcinoma, PloS One, vol.4, issue.6, p.6037, 2009.

U. Langsenlehner, G. Wolf, T. Langsenlehner, A. Gerger, G. Hofmann et al., Genetic polymorphisms in the vascular endothelial growth factor gene and breast cancer risk. The Austrian "tumor of breast tissue: incidence, genetics, and environmental risk factors" study, Breast Cancer Res Treat, vol.109, issue.2, pp.297-304, 2008.

T. Langsenlehner, U. Langsenlehner, W. Renner, P. Krippl, R. Mayer et al., Single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes in the gene for vascular endothelial growth factor and risk of prostate cancer, Eur J Cancer Oxf Engl, vol.44, issue.11, pp.1572-1578, 1990.

C. Qin, Q. Cao, P. Li, S. Wang, J. Wang et al., The influence of genetic variants of sorafenib on clinical outcomes and toxic effects in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. Sci Rep, vol.6, 2016.

A. Van-der-veldt, K. Eechoute, H. Gelderblom, J. Gietema, H. Guchelaar et al., Genetic polymorphisms associated with a prolonged progression-free survival in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer treated with sunitinib, Clin Cancer Res Off J Am Assoc Cancer Res, vol.17, issue.3, pp.620-629, 2011.

X. Tillou, A. Doerfler, S. Collon, F. Kleinclauss, J. Patard et al., De novo kidney graft tumors: results from a multicentric retrospective national study, Am J Transplant Off J Am Soc Transplant Am Soc Transpl Surg, vol.12, issue.12, pp.3308-3323, 2012.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00942810

A. Moon, A. Rogers, D. Talbot, and D. Rix, Renal Cell Cancer in a European Regional Renal Transplant Population: Is There a Role for Immediate Native Renal Radiological Surveillance Before and After Transplantation?, Transplant Proc, vol.47, issue.6, pp.1840-1844, 2015.

H. H. Lee, K. H. Choi, S. C. Yang, and W. K. Han, Renal cell carcinoma in kidney transplant recipients and dialysis patients, Korean J Urol, vol.53, issue.4, pp.229-262, 2012.

M. Gigante, Y. Neuzillet, J. Patard, X. Tillou, R. Thuret et al., Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) arising in native kidneys of dialyzed and transplant patients: are they different entities? BJU Int, vol.110, pp.570-573, 2012.

T. Takagi, T. Kondo, M. Okumi, H. Ishida, and K. Tanabe, Differences in Clinical and Pathological Features of Renal Cell Carcinoma Between Japanese Patients After Kidney Transplantation and Those on Hemodialysis, Ther Apher Dial Off Peer-Rev J, 2017.

Y. Neuzillet, X. Tillou, R. Mathieu, J. Long, M. Gigante et al., Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in patients with end-stage renal disease exhibits many favourable clinical, pathologic, and outcome features compared with RCC in the general population, Eur Urol, vol.60, issue.2, pp.366-73, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00577215

S. A. Birkeland, H. Løkkegaard, and H. H. Storm, Cancer risk in patients on dialysis and after renal transplantation, Lancet Lond Engl, vol.355, issue.9218, pp.1886-1893, 2000.

C. M. Vajdic, S. P. Mcdonald, M. Mccredie, M. T. Van-leeuwen, J. H. Stewart et al., Cancer incidence before and after kidney transplantation, JAMA, vol.296, issue.23, pp.2823-2854, 2006.

G. Wong, A. Hayen, J. R. Chapman, A. C. Webster, J. J. Wang et al., Association of CKD and cancer risk in older people, J Am Soc Nephrol JASN, vol.20, issue.6, pp.1341-50, 2009.

H. Holdaas, L. Rostaing, D. Serón, C. E. Chapman, J. Fellstrøm et al., Conversion of longterm kidney transplant recipients from calcineurin inhibitor therapy to everolimus: a randomized, multicenter, 24-month study, Transplantation, vol.92, issue.4, pp.410-418, 2011.

, Reference SNP (refSNP) Cluster Report: rs699947 ** other ** [Internet, p.2017

W. Chow, L. M. Dong, and S. S. Devesa, Epidemiology and risk factors for kidney cancer, Nat Rev Urol, vol.7, issue.5, pp.245-57, 2010.

, Guide affection longue durée-Cancer du rein de l'adulte-HAS, p.2017, 2010.

C. Y. Cheung, M. Ma, W. L. Chak, K. F. Chau, and S. Tang, Conversion to mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors in kidney transplant recipients with de novo cancers, Oncotarget, 2017.

A. Jakubowska, J. Gronwald, J. Menkiszak, B. Górski, T. Huzarski et al., The VEGF_936_C>T 3'UTR polymorphism reduces BRCA1-associated breast cancer risk in Polish women, Cancer Lett, vol.262, issue.1, pp.71-77, 2008.

N. Mermod, T. J. Williams, and R. Tjian, Enhancer binding factors AP-4 and AP-1 act in concert to activate SV40 late transcription in vitro, Nature, vol.332, issue.6164, pp.557-61, 1988.

Y. F. Hu, B. Lüscher, A. Admon, N. Mermod, and R. Tjian, Transcription factor AP-4 contains multiple dimerization domains that regulate dimer specificity, Genes Dev, vol.4, issue.10, pp.1741-52, 1990.