Enquête de santé en milieux isolés en Guyane

Abstract : Title : Sanitary survey of the isolated regions of French Guiana Introduction : The isolated regions of French Guiana, by their wild aspect – and hence dangerous in common mind – haven't been the subject of many studies about the dangers they really represent. Yet, they are the working ground of many professions and groups. The main objective of this study was to determine what are the illnesses to which are the most exposed those workers. The secondary objectives were to determine the gravity of these illnesses and the search of promoting or protective factors. Materials ans methods : It is a specific knowledge, attitudes and practices survey by an online survey sent to nature related organisms, for an epidemiological descriptive retrospective and transversal study. The survey was online from July to September 2017 and included questions about time spent in French Guiana, the lifestyle in the isolated regions and the illnesses contracted. Results : 92 persons answered the survey, 59 men and 33 women, with a median age of 38.5 years. The median time spent in French Guiana was 84 months. The most frequented environnement was the deep forest (at least occasionnal journeys for 91.3% of the population), the most frequent activity was fauna and flora study (at least occasionnal activity for 72.8% of the population) and the mean time of the journeys was between 3 and 30 days for 68.4% of the population. The most frequent troubles were related – in a decreasing order – to the fauna (over 1164 cases reported, of which over 975 cases related to insects), to cutaneous pathologies (over 997 cases reported), traumatological cases (over 268 cases reported), other infectious illnesses (over 141 cases), digestive problems (over 99 cases), pulmonary troubles (over 23 cases) and finally urinary tract infections (11 cases or more related). 56.8% of the hospitalizations were caused by infectious/parasitic problems, 22.7% by traumatology and 9% by fauna agressions. Tropical related problems (illnesses not present in metropolitan France) were accounting for 36.4% of the people hospitalized, with 20.5% related to leishmaniasis. The mechanical labor were the most risky task with highened odds ratio for numerous pathologies. Discussion/Conclusion : This study shows a predominance of troubles related to the fauna, then to cutaneous problems, traumatology, infectiology and digestive problems. How ether, concerning the importance of the implications, the order is opposite, with infectious and traumatic implications bearing most of the hospitalizations, while cutaneous and fauna related problems rarely giving place to a hospitalization.
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Master Thesis
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Kirill Oganov. Enquête de santé en milieux isolés en Guyane. Médecine humaine et pathologie. 2018. ⟨dumas-02043161⟩

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