Facteurs de risque périnataux de l’obésité infantile : prévalence à la maternité du CHU de Bordeaux de juin 2016 à juin 2017

Abstract : Introduction: the impact of nutritional and metabolic factors in fœtal environnement and their potential role in the development of childhood obesity have been a focus for research over the last two decades. The perinatal period called « the 1000 days » is a crucial period characterized by opportunities for epigenetic modifications. During that period, many perinatal risk factors are identified as correlated to a higher or lower risk of overweight and obesity for children. The main goal of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity at the maternity ward of Bordeaux Hospital. Materiels and Methods: relying on the analysis of computerized questionnaires in a population of 3867 women who had a delivery at the maternity ward of Bordeaux Hospital between June 2016 and June 2017, we computed the prevalence of perinatal risk factors available : pre-pregnancy maternal obesity, weight gain during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, maternal smoking, precarity, mode of delivery, weight at birth. We also calculated the cumulative risk factors. Results: our results show that 33% of women are overweight or obese before pregnancy, and18,41% have gestational diabetes. Caesarian section occurs in 15,27% and maternal smoking in 15,3%. Breastfeeding at maternity has a prevalence of 71,2% versus 28,8% for artificial feeding. 19% of the women cumulated two risk factors, 12% three risk factors and 4% four risk factors. Conclusion: these study highlighted the specificities of the maternity ward of Bordeaux Hospital with regards to the prevalence of risk factors for childhood obesity. This may help us identify children with a higher risk earlier, for example right from the exit of the maternity ward in order to propose preventive actions in concertation with perinatal actors present in and out of the Hospital.
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Master Thesis
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Nadirah Ghenimi. Facteurs de risque périnataux de l’obésité infantile : prévalence à la maternité du CHU de Bordeaux de juin 2016 à juin 2017. Médecine humaine et pathologie. 2018. ⟨dumas-02064345⟩

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