Évaluation de la couverture vaccinale des patients adultes. Intérêt et faisabilité d’un rattrapage vaccinal anti-pneumococcique en fin d’hospitalisation

Abstract : Background: Worldwide, streptococcus pneumoniae –associated bacterial infections represents a major cause of death. The use of pneumococcal vaccine plays an important role for prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease. The aim of this study is to assess the interest and feasibility of a pneumococcal vaccine catch up in adults and elderly patients during hospitalization. Methods: We conducted a monocentric prospective descriptive study in adults and elderly patients hospitalized in the infectious diseases department of the university hospital institute of Marseille from November 2017 to April 2018. A single dose of 13 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) was administered at the end of hospitalization to patients with indication of pneumococcal vaccination. Pneumococcal vaccine rate was defined as the number of participants who received a single injection of PCV13 divided by the total number of patients, which present an indication. Results: 107 patients were eligible to participate in our study: 4 patients were excluded, 5 of them (4.85%) were previously vaccinated and 98 patients (95.15%) required catch up pneumococcal vaccination. After hospitalization in our service, among these 98 patients, 56 had benefits to a shut up vaccination which contributed to the amelioration of the vaccine coverage from 4.85% to 59.22% (p<0.0001). The main reasons of no vaccination were refusal or omission of the hospital medical staff (31% and 29%), lost (21%), patient’s refusal (12%); and provisional medical contraindications (7%). Conclusion: A low coverage pneumococcal vaccination rate in adult and elderly patients can be dramatically improved by a vaccine catch up during hospitalization. Interventions at the hospital for opportunistic immunization may represent an important and innovate avenue to increase vaccination coverage. The hospital medical staff has to be more involved in the under immunized population information and education.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, March 27, 2019 - 4:11:57 PM
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Monia Belghith. Évaluation de la couverture vaccinale des patients adultes. Intérêt et faisabilité d’un rattrapage vaccinal anti-pneumococcique en fin d’hospitalisation. Sciences du Vivant [q-bio]. 2018. ⟨dumas-02081480⟩

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