Discriminants acoustiques des dysarthries flasques, spastiques et mixtes dans les maladies du motoneurone

Abstract : Within the spectrum of motor neuron diseases, primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) and Kennedy’s disease (SBMA) are part of continuum, involving pure upper motor neuron’s lesion in PLS and pure lower motor neuron’s lesion in SBMA. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is characterized by both upper and lower motor neuron’s lesion, leading at an early stage of disease, to mixed clinical signs depending on the lesion’s upper or lower dominance. In each disease, motor neuron’s lesion can corrupt speech involved motions and cause dysarthria. This study aims to search, within speech signals, for acoustic variables allowing the discrimination of these diseases and the type of motor neuron involved, in order to participate in finding objective criteria for differential diagnosis. Results show a possible discrimination of disease groups by the articulatory rate, articulatory precision in consonant clusters and voice stability expressed via F0 variation coefficient. These results couldn’t be reproduced within ALS subjects, sorted by upper or lower motor neuron’s lesion dominance. It is therefore not possible to affirm any link between these acoustic variables and physiopathology. Later studies, involving larger cohorts, should be considerate to confirm these results and develop more sensitive tools for this specific population.
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Ariane Baradat Garcia, Thomas Cohen. Discriminants acoustiques des dysarthries flasques, spastiques et mixtes dans les maladies du motoneurone. Sciences cognitives. 2018. ⟨dumas-02084258⟩

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