G. Bellani, J. G. Laffey, T. Pham, F. E. Brochard, L. Esteban et al., Patterns of Care, and Mortality for Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Intensive Care Units in 50 Countries, JAMA. 23 févr, vol.315, issue.8, p.788, 2016.

L. B. Ware and M. A. Matthay, The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, N Engl J Med. 4 mai, vol.342, pp.1334-1383, 2000.

C. Martin, L. Papazian, M. Payan, P. Saux, and F. Gouin, Pulmonary Fibrosis Correlates With Outcome in Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Chest. janv, vol.107, issue.1, pp.196-200, 1995.

J. G. Clark, Type III Procollagen Peptide in the Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Association of Increased Peptide Levels in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid with Increased Risk for Death, Ann Intern Med. 1 janv, vol.122, issue.1, p.17, 1995.

R. P. Marshall, G. Bellingan, S. Webb, A. Puddicombe, N. Goldsack et al., Fibroproliferation Occurs Early in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Impacts on Outcome, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol.162, issue.5, pp.1783-1791, 2000.

K. Ichikado, M. Suga, H. Muranaka, Y. Gushima, H. Miyakawa et al., Prediction of Prognosis for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome with Thin-Section CT: Validation in 44 Cases, Radiology. janv, vol.238, issue.1, pp.321-330, 2006.

E. L. Burnham, W. J. Janssen, D. Riches, M. Moss, and G. P. Downey, The fibroproliferative response in acute respiratory distress syndrome: mechanisms and clinical significance, Eur Respir J. 1 janv, vol.43, issue.1, pp.276-85, 2014.

G. U. Meduri, E. Golden, A. X. Freire, E. Taylor, M. Zaman et al., Methylprednisolone Infusion in Early Severe ARDS, Chest. avr, vol.131, issue.4, pp.954-63, 2007.

G. U. Meduri, L. Bridges, M. Shih, P. E. Marik, R. Siemieniuk et al., Prolonged glucocorticoid treatment is associated with improved ARDS outcomes: analysis of individual patients' data from four randomized trials and trial-level meta-analysis of the updated literature, Intensive Care Med. mai, vol.42, issue.5, pp.829-869, 2016.

G. U. Meduri, A. S. Headley, E. Golden, S. J. Carson, R. A. Umberger et al., Effect of Prolonged Methylprednisolone Therapy in Unresolving Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial, JAMA. 8 juill, vol.280, issue.2, p.159, 1998.

G. U. Meduri, P. E. Marik, G. P. Chrousos, S. M. Pastores, W. Arlt et al., Steroid treatment in ARDS: a critical appraisal of the ARDS network trial and the recent literature, Intensive Care Med. janv, vol.34, issue.1, pp.61-70, 2008.

D. Annane, S. M. Pastores, B. Rochwerg, W. Arlt, R. A. Balk et al., Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) in critically ill patients (Part I): Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) 2017, Intensive Care Med. déc, vol.43, issue.12, pp.1751-63, 2017.

K. Steinberg, Efficacy and Safety of Corticosteroids for Persistent Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, N Engl J Med. 20 avr, vol.354, pp.1671-84, 2006.

C. Philipponnet, L. Cassagnes, B. Pereira, J. Kemeny, M. Devouassoux-shisheboran et al., Diagnostic yield and therapeutic impact of open lung biopsy in the critically ill patient, PLoS ONE, vol.25, issue.2018

J. Forel, C. Guervilly, S. Hraiech, F. Voillet, G. Thomas et al., Type III procollagen is a reliable marker of ARDS-associated lung fibroproliferation, Intensive Care Med. 1 janv, vol.41, issue.1, pp.1-11, 2015.

S. Shahzeidi, B. Mulier, B. De-crombrugghe, P. K. Jeffery, R. J. Mcanulty et al., Enhanced type III collagen gene expression during bleomycin induced lung fibrosis, Thorax. 1 juin, vol.48, issue.6, pp.622-630, 1993.

R. B. Low, M. S. Giancola, T. E. King, J. Chapitis, P. Vacek et al., Serum and Bronchoalveolar Lavage of N-Terminal Type III Procollagen Peptides in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis, Am Rev Respir Dis. sept, vol.146, issue.3, pp.701-707, 1992.

L. Bjermer, R. Lundgren, and R. Hallgren, Hyaluronan and type III procollagen peptide concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Thorax. 1 févr, vol.44, issue.2, pp.126-157, 1989.

J. H. Chung and D. A. Lynch, The Value of a Multidisciplinary Approach to the Diagnosis of Usual Interstitial Pneumonitis and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Radiology, Pathology, and Clinical Correlation, Am J Roentgenol. mars, vol.206, pp.463-71, 2016.

G. Raghu, D. Lynch, J. D. Godwin, R. Webb, T. V. Colby et al., Diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with high-resolution CT in patients with little or no radiological evidence of honeycombing: secondary analysis of a randomised, controlled trial, Lancet Respir Med. avr, vol.2, pp.277-84, 2014.

K. Ichikado, H. Muranaka, Y. Gushima, T. Kotani, H. M. Nader et al., Fibroproliferative changes on high-resolution CT in the acute respiratory distress syndrome predict mortality and ventilator dependency: a prospective observational cohort study, BMJ Open, vol.2, issue.2, p.545, 2012.

K. Ichikado, M. Suga, N. L. Müller, H. Taniguchi, Y. Kondoh et al., Acute Interstitial Pneumonia, Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1 juin, vol.165, issue.11, pp.1551-1557, 2002.

E. L. Burnham, R. C. Hyzy, R. Paine, A. M. Kelly, L. E. Quint et al., Detection of Fibroproliferation by Chest High-Resolution CT Scan in Resolving ARDS, Chest. nov, vol.146, issue.5, pp.1196-204, 2014.

E. A. Kazerooni, F. J. Martinez, A. Flint, D. A. Jamadar, B. H. Gross et al., Thinsection CT obtained at 10-mm increments versus limited three-level thin-section CT for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: correlation with pathologic scoring, Am J Roentgenol. oct, vol.169, issue.4, pp.977-83, 1997.

L. Papazian, C. Doddoli, B. Chetaille, Y. Gernez, X. Thirion et al., A contributive result of open-lung biopsy improves survival in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients, Crit Care Med. mars, vol.35, issue.3, pp.755-62, 2007.

J. Farjanel, D. J. Hartmann, B. Guidet, L. Luquel, and G. Offenstadt, Four Markers of Collagen Metabolism as Possible Indicators of Disease in the Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Am Rev Respir Dis. mai, vol.147, issue.5, pp.1091-1100, 1993.

L. Armstrong, D. R. Thickett, J. P. Mansell, M. Ionescu, E. Hoyle et al., Changes in Collagen Turnover in Early Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1 déc, vol.160, issue.6, pp.1910-1915, 1999.

U. Meduri, G. Tolley, E. A. Chinn, A. Stentz, F. Postlethwaite et al., Procollagen Types I and III Aminoterminal Propeptide Levels during Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and in Response to Methylprednisolone Treatment, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol.158, issue.5, pp.1432-1473, 1998.

A. Demoule, F. Decailliot, B. Jonson, C. Christov, B. Maitre et al., Relationship between pressure-volume curve and markers for collagen turn-over in early acute respiratory distress syndrome, Intensive Care Med. mars, vol.32, issue.3, pp.413-433, 2006.

J. Rouby, L. Puybasset, A. Nieszkowska, and Q. Lu, Acute respiratory distress syndrome: Lessons from computed tomography of the whole lung, Crit Care Med. avr, vol.31, pp.285-95, 2003.

C. E. Engeler, J. H. Tashjian, S. W. Trenkner, and J. W. Walsh, Ground-glass opacity of the lung parenchyma: a guide to analysis with high-resolution CT, Am J Roentgenol. févr, vol.160, issue.2, pp.249-51, 1993.

, Age

, SOFA: sequential organ failure assessment, PBW: predicted body weight, PEEP: positive endexpiratory pressure, ARDS: acute respiratory distress syndrome, SAPS II: simplified acute physiologic score