. Nong-shen.-ben-cao and . Jing,

D. Richard and J. Senon, pdf. Toxibase, issue.1, p.25, 1995.

J. J. Moreau, Du hachisch et de l'aliénation mentale: études psychologiques

M. Fortin, , p.1845

, Office des Nations Unies contre la drogue et le crime, rapport mondial sur les drogues, 2018.

, Rapport européen sur les drogues. Tendances et évolutions, p.96, 2018.

J. Goullé and M. Guerbet, Les grands traits de la pharmacocinétique du delta-9-tétrahydrocannabinol (THC) ; les nouveaux cannabinoïdes de synthèse ; le cannabis et la sécurité routière

, Académie nationale de médecine | Une institution dans son temps, 2014.

. François, . Beck, . Stanislas, . Spilka, . Viêt et al., Cannabis: usage actuel en population adulte, 2017.

S. Spilka, M. Ngantcha, C. Mutatayi, and F. Beck, La santé des collégiens en France/2014. Données françaises de l'enquête internationale Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC), Santé publique Fance, p.10, 2014.

. Stanislas, . Spilka, L. Olivier, C. Nézet, and . Mutatayi, Les drogues durant les « années Lycées »: résultats de l'enquête ESPAD 2015 en France. tendances [Internet]. sept 206apr

S. Spilka, O. L. Nézet, E. Janssen, A. Brissot, and A. Philippon, Les drogues à 17 ans: analyse régionale

, Observatoire français des drogues et toxicomanies; 2018 sept, p.54

B. R. Thanvi and S. D. Treadwell, Cannabis and stroke: is there a link, Postgrad Med J. 1 févr, vol.85, p.80, 1000.

M. E. Wall, B. M. Sadler, D. Brine, H. Taylor, and M. Perez-reyes, Metabolism, disposition, and kinetics of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in men and women, Clin Pharmacol Ther. sept, vol.34, issue.3, pp.352-63, 1983.

B. Law, P. A. Mason, A. C. Moffat, R. I. Gleadle, and L. J. King, Forensic aspects of the metabolism and excretion of cannabinoids following oral ingestion of cannabis resin, J Pharm Pharmacol. mai, vol.36, issue.5, pp.289-94, 1984.

, LOI no 99-505 du 18 juin 1999 portant diverses mesures relatives à la sécurité routière et aux infractions sur les agents des exploitants de réseau de transport public de voyageurs. 99-505 juin 18, 1999.

P. Mura, La recherche et le dosage des cannabinoïdes : pourquoi et comment ?, Rev Fr Lab. 1 avr, issue.322, pp.31-34, 2000.

R. C. Meatherall and R. J. Warren, High urinary cannabinoids from a hashish body packer, J Anal Toxicol. déc, vol.17, issue.7, pp.439-479, 1993.

E. Cone, Saliva Testing for Drugs of Abuse, vol.694, 1993.

J. Goullé and P. Kintz, Le cheveu : un efficace marqueur biologique d'exposition aux xénobiotiques, Ann Biol Clin (Paris). 12 sept, vol.55, issue.5, pp.435-477, 1997.

L. Holzer, O. Halfon, and V. Thoua,

, Arch Pediatr Organe Off Soc Francaise Pediatr. mai, vol.18, issue.5, pp.579-88, 2011.

M. Mallaret, Décès en relation avec l'abus de médicaments et de substances (DRAMES)

. Ofdt, , 2016.

N. Gogtay, J. N. Giedd, L. Lusk, K. M. Hayashi, D. Greenstein et al., Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 25 mai, vol.101, issue.21, pp.8174-8183, 2004.

M. G. Bossong and R. Niesink, Adolescent brain maturation, the endogenous cannabinoid system and the neurobiology of cannabis-induced schizophrenia, Prog Neurobiol, vol.92, issue.3, pp.370-85, 2010.

D. Piomelli, A. Giuffrida, A. Calignano, R. De-fonseca, and F. , The endocannabinoid system as a target for therapeutic drugs, Trends Pharmacol Sci. juin, vol.21, issue.6, pp.218-242, 2000.

R. D. Baler and N. D. Volkow, Drug addiction: the neurobiology of disrupted self-control, Trends Mol Med. déc, vol.12, issue.12, pp.559-66, 2006.

W. Schultz, Dopamine signals for reward value and risk: basic and recent data, Behav Brain Funct BBF. 23 avr, vol.6, p.24, 2010.

N. D. Volkow, J. S. Fowler, G. J. Wang, R. Baler, and F. Telang, Imaging dopamine's role in drug abuse and addiction, Neuropharmacology, vol.56, pp.3-8, 2009.

M. Ernst, D. S. Pine, and M. Hardin, Triadic model of the neurobiology of motivated behavior in adolescence, Psychol Med. mars, vol.36, issue.3, pp.299-312, 2006.

N. D. Volkow, R. D. Baler, W. M. Compton, and S. Weiss, Adverse Health Effects of Marijuana Use, N Engl J Med. 5 juin, vol.370, issue.23, pp.2219-2246, 2014.

X. Laqueille,

, Rev Prat. 15 janv, vol.55, issue.1, pp.30-34, 2005.

A. Mayet, Étude des trajectoires d'usage de substances psychoactives chez l'adolescent et l'adulte jeune: Exploration de la théorie de l'escalade

, Université Paris Descartes, 2012.

, Conduites addictives chez les adolescents : Usages, prévention et accompagnement

. Inserm, Expertise collective), vol.500, 2014.

J. C. Anthony, L. A. Warner, and R. C. Kessler, Comparative epidemiology of dependence on tobacco, alcohol, controlled substances, and inhalants: Basic findings from the National Comorbidity Survey, Exp Clin Psychopharmacol, vol.2, issue.3, pp.244-68, 1994.

A. Dervaux, M. Krebs, and X. Laqueille, Cannabis-induced cognitive and psychiatric disorders, p.20, 2014.

T. Moore, S. Zammit, A. Lingford-hughes, T. Barnes, P. B. Jones et al., Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: a systematic review, Lancet Lond Engl. 28 juill, vol.370, issue.9584, pp.319-347, 2007.

V. A. Morgan, A. Waterreus, A. Jablensky, A. Mackinnon, J. J. Mcgrath et al., People living with psychotic illness in 2010: the second Australian national survey of psychosis, Aust N Z J Psychiatry. août, vol.46, issue.8, pp.735-52, 2012.

L. Arseneault, M. Cannon, R. Poulton, R. Murray, A. Caspi et al., Cannabis use in adolescence and risk for adult psychosis: longitudinal prospective study, BMJ, vol.325, issue.7374, pp.1212-1215, 2002.

S. Zammit, P. Allebeck, S. Andreasson, I. Lundberg, and G. Lewis, Self reported cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia in Swedish conscripts of 1969: historical cohort study, BMJ, vol.325, issue.7374, p.1199, 2002.

R. D. Crean, N. A. Crane, and B. J. Mason, An Evidence Based Review of Acute and Long-Term Effects of Cannabis Use on Executive Cognitive Functions, J Addict Med. 1 mars, vol.5, issue.1, pp.1-8, 2011.

M. A. Fontes, K. I. Bolla, P. J. Cunha, P. P. Almeida, F. Jungerman et al., Cannabis use before age 15 and subsequent executive functioning, Br J Psychiatry. juin, vol.198, issue.06, pp.442-449, 2011.

L. J. Horwood, D. M. Fergusson, M. R. Hayatbakhsh, J. M. Najman, C. Coffey et al., Cannabis use and educational achievement: findings from three Australasian cohort studies, Drug Alcohol Depend. 1 août, vol.110, issue.3, pp.247-53, 2010.

M. H. Meier, A. Caspi, A. Ambler, H. Harrington, R. Houts et al., Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.109, issue.40, pp.2657-64, 2012.

N. Desjardins and C. Stheneur, Arch Pediatr Organe Off Soc Francaise Pediatr. juin, vol.23, issue.6, pp.619-642, 2016.

A. Aryana and M. A. Williams, Marijuana as a trigger of cardiovascular events: speculation or scientific certainty?, Int J Cardiol. 31 mai, vol.118, issue.2, pp.141-145, 2007.

V. Wolff and E. Jouanjus, Strokes are possible complications of cannabinoids use, Epilepsy Behav EB, vol.70, pp.355-63, 2017.

R. Mehra, B. A. Moore, K. Crothers, J. Tetrault, and D. A. Fiellin, The Association Between Marijuana Smoking and Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review, Arch Intern Med. 10 juill, vol.166, issue.13, pp.1359-67, 2006.

J. Berthiller, K. Straif, M. Boniol, N. Voirin, V. Benhaïm-luzon et al., Cannabis smoking and risk of lung cancer in men: a pooled analysis of three studies in Maghreb, J Thorac Oncol Off Publ Int Assoc Study Lung Cancer. déc, vol.3, issue.12, pp.1398-403, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00428254

A. J. Sasco, R. M. Merrill, D. I. Benhaïm-luzon, V. Carriot, F. Cann et al., A case-control study of lung cancer in Casablanca, Morocco. Cancer Causes Control CCC, sept, vol.13, issue.7, pp.609-625, 2002.

J. A. Chacko, J. G. Heiner, W. Siu, M. Macy, and M. K. Terris, Association between marijuana use and transitional cell carcinoma, Urology. janv, vol.67, issue.1, pp.100-104, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.urology.2005.07.005

S. Sidney, C. P. Quesenberry, G. D. Friedman, and I. S. Tekawa, Marijuana use and cancer incidence (California, United States), Cancer Causes Control CCC. sept, vol.8, issue.5, pp.722-730, 1997.

S. Y. Lee, S. M. Oh, S. K. Lee, and K. H. Chung, Antiestrogenic effects of marijuana smoke condensate and cannabinoid compounds, Arch Pharm Res. 1 déc, vol.28, issue.12, pp.1365-75, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/bf02977903

H. S. Klonoff-cohen, L. Natarajan, and R. V. Chen, A prospective study of the effects of female and male marijuana use on in vitro fertilization (IVF) and gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) outcomes, Am J Obstet Gynecol. févr, vol.194, issue.2, pp.369-76, 2006.

L. Bernard, G. Blandine, and J. Martin, Stupéfiants et accidents mortels (projet SAM) -Analyse épidémiologique, p.2011

, Observatoire français des drogues et toxicomanies; 2011 avr, p.166

C. Jousselme, M. Cosquer, and C. Hassler, Portraits dadolescents: enquête épidémiologique multicentrique en milieu scolaire en, 2013.

F. Beck, R. Guignard, I. Obradovic, A. Gautier, and L. Karila, Le développement du repérage des pratiques addictives en médecine générale en France. /data/revues/03987620/v59i5/S0398762011003099, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.respe.2011.03.059

D. Sur,

V. Benard, B. Rolland, N. Messaadi, A. Petit, O. Cottencin et al., Consommation de cannabis : conduite à tenir en médecine générale. Datarevues07554982v44i7-8S0755498215000664, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.lpm.2014.11.014

D. Sur,

G. Martin, J. Copeland, P. Gates, and S. Gilmour, The Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) in an adolescent population of cannabis users: Reliability, validity and diagnostic cut-off, Drug Alcohol Depend. 9 juin, vol.83, issue.1, pp.90-93, 2006.

L. Bastiani, V. Siciliano, O. Curzio, C. Luppi, M. Gori et al., Optimal scaling of the CAST and of SDS Scale in a national sample of adolescents, Addict Behav. 1 avr, vol.38, issue.4, pp.2060-2067, 2013.

J. Bashford, R. Flett, and J. Copeland, The Cannabis Use Problems Identification Test (CUPIT): development, reliability, concurrent and predictive validity among adolescents and adults, Addiction. 1 avr, vol.105, issue.4, pp.615-640, 2010.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2009.02859.x

S. J. Adamson, F. J. Kay-lambkin, A. L. Baker, T. J. Lewin, L. Thornton et al., An improved brief measure of cannabis misuse: The Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test-Revised (CUDIT-R), Drug Alcohol Depend. 1 juill, vol.110, issue.1, pp.137-180, 2010.

J. O. Prochaska and C. C. Diclemente, Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: toward an integrative model of change, J Consult Clin Psychol. juin, vol.51, issue.3, pp.390-395, 1983.

D. Lécailler and P. Michaud, Une évolution radicale de la relation thérapeutique, Alcoologie Addictologie, issue.26, p.6, 2004.

J. Copeland, S. Rooke, D. Rodriquez, M. M. Norberg, and L. Gibson, Comparison of brief versus extended personalised feedback in an online intervention for cannabis users: Short-term findings of a randomised trial, J Subst Abuse Treat, vol.76, pp.43-51, 2017.

G. Smedslund, R. C. Berg, K. T. Hammerstrøm, A. Steiro, K. A. Leiknes et al., Motivational interviewing for substance abuse, Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 11 mai, issue.5, p.8063, 2011.

T. H. Bien, W. R. Miller, and J. S. Tonigan, Brief interventions for alcohol problems: a review, Addict Abingdon Engl. mars, vol.88, issue.3, pp.315-350, 1993.

C. Laporte, Le médecin généraliste et la consommation de cannabis des adolescents en France, 2016.

. Ronald-kadden, K. D. Ph, P. D. Carroll, P. D. Dennis-donovan, N. Cooney et al., Cognitive-Behavioural coping skills therapy manual: a clinical research guide for therapist treating individuals with alcohol abuse and dependence, Natl Inst Alcohol Abuse Alcohol, vol.3, p.116, 1995.

M. Dennis, S. H. Godley, G. Diamond, F. M. Tims, T. Babor et al., The Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) Study: main findings from two randomized trials, J Subst Abuse Treat, vol.27, issue.3, pp.197-213, 2004.

G. Diamond, S. H. Godley, H. A. Liddle, S. Sampl, C. Webb et al., Five outpatient treatment models for adolescent marijuana use: a description of the Cannabis Youth Treatment Interventions, Addict Abingdon Engl. déc, vol.97, issue.1, pp.70-83, 2002.

O. Phan, C. E. Henderson, T. Angelidis, P. Weil, M. Van-toorn et al., European youth care sites serve different populations of adolescents with cannabis use disorder. Baseline and referral data from the INCANT trial, BMC Psychiatry. 12 juill, vol.11, p.110, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00663631

C. Stheneur and G. Picherot, Addictions chez l'enfant et l'adolescent. Doin, vol.253, 2014.

J. S. Brook, M. Whiteman, S. Finch, and P. Cohen, Mutual attachment, personality, and drug use: pathways from childhood to young adulthood, Genet Soc Gen Psychol Monogr, vol.124, issue.4, pp.492-510, 1998.

H. A. Liddle, Multidimensional Family Therapy: Evidence Base for Transdiagnostic Treatment Outcomes, Change Mechanisms, and Implementation in Community Settings, Fam Process, vol.55, issue.3, pp.558-76, 2016.

M. P. Schaub, C. E. Henderson, I. Pelc, P. Tossmann, O. Phan et al., Multidimensional family therapy decreases the rate of externalising behavioural disorder symptoms in cannabis abusing adolescents: outcomes of the INCANT trial, BMC Psychiatry. 31 janv, vol.14, p.26, 2014.

A. Tylee, D. M. Haller, T. Graham, R. Churchill, and L. A. Sanci, Youth-friendly primary-care services: how are we doing and what more needs to be done? The Lancet. 5 mai, vol.369, pp.1565-73, 2007.

K. A. Young, K. L. Gobrogge, and Z. Wang, THE ROLE OF MESOCORTICOLIMBIC DOPAMINE IN REGULATING INTERACTIONS BETWEEN DRUGS OF ABUSE AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR, Neurosci Biobehav Rev. janv, vol.35, issue.3, pp.498-515, 2011.

P. Binder, A. Heintz, C. Servant, M. Roux, R. S. Gicquel et al., Screening for adolescent suicidality in primary care: the bullying-insomnia-tobacco-stress test. A population-based pilot study, Early Interv Psychiatry, vol.12, issue.4, pp.637-681, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02128338

A. Benyamina and . Éditeur, Addictions et comorbidités. Paris: Dunod; 2015. 30 p

C. J. Wilhelm, J. G. Hashimoto, M. L. Roberts, M. K. Sonmez, and K. M. Wiren, Understanding the addiction cycle: a complex biology with distinct contributions of genotype vs. sex at each stage, Neuroscience, vol.279, pp.168-86, 2014.

F. A. Champagne, Interplay between social experiences and the genome: epigenetic consequences for behavior, Adv Genet, vol.77, pp.33-57, 2012.

K. W. Griffin, G. J. Botvin, J. A. Epstein, M. M. Doyle, and T. Diaz, Psychosocial and behavioral factors in early adolescence as predictors of heavy drinking among high school seniors, J Stud Alcohol. juill, vol.61, issue.4, pp.603-609, 2000.

M. Solinas, N. Thiriet, C. Chauvet, and M. Jaber, Prevention and treatment of drug addiction by environmental enrichment, Prog Neurobiol. déc, vol.92, issue.4, pp.572-92, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00580577

, Committee on the Prevention of Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse Among Children, Research Advances and Promising Interventions. Preventing Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Disorders Among Young People: Progress and Possibilities

M. E. O'connell, T. Boat, and K. E. Warner, Impulsivity and Stress Response in Nondependent Smokers (Tobacco Chippers) in Comparison to Heavy Smokers and Nonsmokers, 2009.

D. Sur,

D. J. Dewit, E. M. Adlaf, D. R. Offord, and A. C. Ogborne, Age at first alcohol use: a risk factor for the development of alcohol disorders, Am J Psychiatry. mai, vol.157, issue.5, pp.745-50, 2000.

C. F. Geier, R. Terwilliger, T. Teslovich, K. Velanova, and B. Luna, Immaturities in reward processing and its influence on inhibitory control in adolescence, Cereb Cortex N Y N, vol.20, issue.7, pp.1613-1642, 1991.

A. Sheils, D. Kolves, and . Leo, Australian Institute for Suicide Research and Prevention: selected research readings, Collegian. nov, vol.13, p.243, 2014.

, Cannabis repères pour intervenir

S. Legleye, D. Piontek, L. Kraus, E. Morand, and B. Falissard, A validation of the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) using a latent class analysis of the DSM-IV among adolescents, Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 1 mars, vol.22, issue.1, pp.16-26, 2013.

D. Duprez and M. Devresse, Médecine et hygiène, 'évolution des usages de drogues et des politiques: de l'Europe aux Amériques, 2008.

J. P. Davis, D. C. Smith, J. W. Morphew, X. Lei, and S. Zhang, Cannabis Withdrawal, Posttreatment Abstinence, and Days to First Cannabis Use Among Emerging Adults in Substance Use Treatment: A Prospective Study, J Drug Issues. janv, vol.46, issue.1, pp.64-83, 2016.

R. Vandrey, A. J. Budney, J. L. Kamon, and C. Stanger, Cannabis withdrawal in adolescent treatment seekers, Drug Alcohol Depend. 9 mai, vol.78, issue.2, pp.205-215, 2005.

A. L. Mcrae-clark, N. L. Baker, K. M. Gray, T. K. Killeen, A. M. Wagner et al., Buspirone treatment of cannabis dependence: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial, Drug Alcohol Depend, vol.156, pp.29-37, 2015.

R. Vandrey, M. L. Stitzer, M. Z. Mintzer, M. A. Huestis, J. A. Murray et al., The dose effects of shortterm dronabinol (oral THC) maintenance in daily cannabis users, Drug Alcohol Depend. 1 févr, vol.128, issue.1-2, pp.64-70, 2013.

M. Haney, C. L. Hart, S. K. Vosburg, S. D. Comer, S. C. Reed et al., Effects of THC and Lofexidine in a Human Laboratory Model of Marijuana Withdrawal and Relapse, Psychopharmacology (Berl). mars, vol.197, issue.1, pp.157-68, 2008.

F. R. Levin, J. J. Mariani, M. Pavlicova, D. Brooks, A. Glass et al., Dronabinol and Lofexidine for Cannabis Use Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial, Drug Alcohol Depend. 1 févr, vol.159, pp.53-60, 2016.

J. R. Cornelius, O. G. Bukstein, A. B. Douaihy, D. B. Clark, T. A. Chung et al., Double-blind fluoxetine trial in comorbid MDD-CUD youth and young adults, Drug Alcohol Depend, vol.112, issue.1-2, pp.39-45, 2010.