Influence des apports nutritionnels durant les premières semaines de vie du prématuré sur la croissance et le développement psychomoteur jusqu'à l'âge de 2 ans

Abstract : Introduction : The optimal nutrition of premature is a major problematic in neonatology. Objectives : The main objective was to study the link between the initial nutrition of premature and the growth trajectory until 2 years. The second objective was the analysis of the connection between this nutrition and the psychomotor development up to 2 years old. Patients and methods : A monocentric, retrospective and descriptive study was conducted. Prematures < 32 weeks of gestation born between 2005 and 2015, hospitalized in neonatology units and followes by the same observer during the consultations at the CHU Amiens-Picardie, were included in this study. Résults : 40 prematures of middle term at birth of 28.9±2.1 weeks, with and average birth weight of 1190±350g were included in this study. 20% of the children showed an intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), 47.5% an weight ≤ -2SD at the end of hospitalization including 17.5% of premature with IUGR, so 30% with an extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR). There was an important deficit of nutritional intakes during the first 2 weeks of hospitalization. The retardations of weight, statural and cranial perimeter growths were respectively pointed out on 32%, 26% and 19% of 1 year old children, and 18%, 18% and 6% of 2 years old children. At 2 years old, the BMI was insufficient for 24% of the children and the BP/CP ratio was in deficit for 14% of them. The energy inputs during the second week of life were associated with the weight growth up to 2 years old. At a corrected age of 2, a psychomotor retardation was observed among 26% of the children evaluated. In this proportion, 6% had a weight ≤ -2SD and a hight ≤ -2DS. We did not observe a link between nutritional intake during hospitalization and psychomotor development. Conclusion : An optimal nutrition from the first days of life of prematures is required to prevent EUGR which may have consequences on their long term health.
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Master Thesis
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Perrine Poidevin. Influence des apports nutritionnels durant les premières semaines de vie du prématuré sur la croissance et le développement psychomoteur jusqu'à l'âge de 2 ans. Pédiatrie. 2018. ⟨dumas-02122873⟩

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