J. Ca-cancer and . Clin, Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries, vol.68, pp.394-424, 2018.

, Risk factors for chronic pain following breast cancer surgery: a prospective study

E. Poleshuck, J. Katz, C. H. Andrus, L. A. Hogan, B. F. Jung et al., J Pain, vol.7, issue.9, pp.626-660, 2006.

R. Gärtner, M. B. Jensen, J. Nielsen, M. Ewertz, N. Kroman et al., Prevalence of and factors associated with persistent pain following breast cancer surgery, 2009.

, Nov, vol.11, issue.18, pp.1985-92

, A retrospective study of postmastectomy pain syndrome: incidence, characteristics, risk factors, and influence on quality of life, Meijuan Y1, Zhiyou P2, Yuwen T1, Ying F1, p.159732, 2013.

J. E. Chelly and . Blocks, Anesthesiol Clin, vol.30, pp.75-90, 2012.

F. Santé-publique, Maladies chroniques et traumatismes / Cancers / Données par localisation / Cancer du sein

. Société-française-de-sénologie and . De-pathologie-mammaire, Recommandations nationales de l'Institut National du Cancer (INCa) sur le carcinome canalaire in situ, 2015.

J. M. O'donoghue, H. Bahia, R. P. Bunsell, and P. J. Regan, Intrapleural bupivicaine in latissimus dorsi breast reconstruction, Ann Plast.Surg, vol.61, pp.252-257, 2008.

K. Wang, X. Zhang, T. Zhang, H. Yue, S. Sun et al., The efficacy of ultrasoundguided type II pectoral nerve blocks in perioperative pain management for immediate reconstruction after modified radical mastectomy: a prospective

, Clin J Pain, vol.34, pp.231-237, 2018.

B. Enqvist, C. Bjorklund, M. Engman, and J. Jakobsson, Preoperative hypnosis reduces postoperative vomiting after surgery of the breasts. A prospective, randomized and blinded study, Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, vol.41, pp.1028-1060, 1997.

G. E. Woodworth, R. Ivie, S. M. Nelson, C. M. Walker, and R. B. Maniker, Perioperative breast analgesia: a qualitative review of anatomy and regional techniques, Reg Anesth Pain Med, vol.42, pp.609-640, 2017.

T. Tedore, Regional anaesthesia and analgesia: relationship to cancer recurrence and survival, British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol.115, issue.2, pp.34-45, 2015.

K. Byrne, K. J. Levins, and D. J. Buggy, Can anesthetic-analgesic technique during primary cancer surgery affect recurrence or metastasis?, Can J Anaesth, vol.63, pp.184-92, 2016.

M. W. Sekandarzad, A. Van-zundert, P. B. Lirk, C. W. Doornebal, and M. W. Hollmann, Perioperative anesthesia care and tumor progression, Anesth Analg, vol.124, pp.1697-708, 2017.

A. Ni-eochagain, D. Burns, B. Riedel, D. I. Sessler, and D. J. Buggy, The effect of anaesthetic technique during primary breast cancer surgery on neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-lymphocyte ratio and return to intended oncological therapy, Anaesthesia, vol.73, pp.603-614, 2018.

G. D'agostino, A. Saporito, V. Cecchinato, Y. Silvestri, A. Borgeat et al., Lidocaine inhibits cytoskeletal remodelling and human breast cancer cell migration, Br J Anaesth, vol.121, pp.962-970, 2018.

D. Fletcher and V. Martinez, Opioid-induced hyperalgesia in patients after surgery: a systematic review and a meta-analysis, Br J Anaesth, vol.112, pp.991-1004, 2014.

O. T. Hickey, N. F. Nugent, S. M. Burke, P. Hafeez, and A. L. Mudrakouski, Shorten GD: Persistent pain after mastectomy with reconstruction, J Clin Anesth, vol.23, pp.482-490, 2011.

A. Schnabel, S. U. Reichl, P. Kranke, E. M. Pogatzki-zahn, and P. K. Zahn, Efficacy and safety of paravertebral blocks in breast surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

, Br J Anaesth, vol.105, pp.842-52, 2010.

A. M. Exadaktylos, D. Buggy, D. Moriarty, E. Mascha, and D. I. Sessler, Can anesthetic technique for primary breast cancer surgery affect recurrence or metastasis?, Anesthesiology, vol.105, pp.660-664, 2006.

C. C. Apfel, E. Laara, M. Koivuranta, and C. A. Greim, Roewer N: A simplified risk score for predicting postoperative nausea and vomiting: conclusions from cross-validations between two centers, Anesthesiology, vol.91, pp.693-700, 1999.

. Wikipedia and . Equianalgesic,

R. F. Bell, J. B. Dahl, R. A. Moore, and E. Kalso, Peri-operative ketamine for acute post-operative pain: a quantitative and qualitative systematic review (Cochrane review), Acta Anaesthesiol.Scand, vol.49, pp.1405-1433, 2005.

D. Manoir, B. Aubrun, F. Langlois, M. , L. Guern et al., Randomized prospective study of the analgesic effect of nefopam after orthopaedic surgery, British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol.91, pp.836-877, 2003.

C. Aveline, J. F. Gautier, P. Vautier, F. Cognet, H. L. Hetet et al., Postoperative analgesia and early rehabilitation after total knee replacement: a comparison of continuous low-dose intravenous ketamine versus nefopam, Eur.J Pain, vol.13, pp.613-622, 2009.

J. B. Dahl, R. V. Nielsen, J. Wetterslev, L. Nikolajsen, K. Hamunen et al., Post-operative analgesic effects of paracetamol, NSAIDs, glucocorticoids, gabapentinoids and their combinations: a topical review, Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, vol.58, pp.1165-81, 2014.

F. Dai, D. G. Silverman, J. E. Chelly, J. Li, I. Belfer et al., Integration of pain score and morphine consumption in analgesic clinical studies, J Pain, vol.14, pp.767-77, 2013.

P. R. Rosenbaum and D. B. Rubin, Constructing a control group using multivariate matched sampling methods that incorporate the propensity score, Am.Stat, vol.39, pp.33-41, 1985.

P. C. Austin, An introduction to propensity score methods for reducing the effects of confounding in observational studies, Multivariate.Behav.Res, vol.46, pp.399-424, 2011.

P. C. Austin, The relative ability of different propensity score methods to balance measured covariates between treated and untreated subjects in observational studies

, Med Decis.Making, vol.29, pp.661-77, 2009.

P. C. Austin and D. S. Small, The use of bootstrapping when using propensity-score matching without replacement: a simulation study, Stat.Med, vol.33, pp.4306-4325, 2014.

P. C. Austin, Balance diagnostics for comparing the distribution of baseline covariates between treatment groups in propensity-score matched samples, Stat.Med, vol.28, pp.3083-107, 2009.

J. Wu, D. Buggy, E. Fleischmann, I. Parra-sanchez, T. Treschan et al., Thoracic paravertebral regional anesthesia improves analgesia after breast cancer surgery: a randomized controlled multicentre clinical trial, Can J Anaesth, vol.62, pp.241-51, 2015.

B. Qian, S. Fu, Y. Yao, D. Lin, and L. Huang, Preoperative ultrasound-guided multilevel paravertebral blocks reduce the incidence of postmastectomy chronic pain: a doubleblind, placebo-controlled randomized trial, J Pain Res, vol.12, pp.597-603, 2019.

E. A. Page and K. L. Taylor, Paravertebral block in paediatric abdominal surgery-a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials, Br J Anaesth, vol.118, pp.159-66, 2017.

Z. Naja and P. A. Lonnqvist, Somatic paravertebral nerve blockade. Incidence of failed block and complications, Anaesthesia, vol.56, pp.1184-1192, 2001.

V. Peuckmann, O. Ekholm, N. K. Rasmussen, M. Groenvold, P. Christiansen et al., Chronic pain and other sequelae in long-term breast cancer survivors: nationwide survey in Denmark, Eur.J Pain, vol.13, pp.478-85, 2009.

D. Lefebvre-kuntz, C. Dualé, A. Albi-feldzer, B. Nougarède, M. N. Falewee et al., General anaesthetic agents do not influence persistent pain after breast cancer surgery: A prospective nationwide cohort study, Eur J Anaesthesiol, vol.32, pp.697-704, 2015.

P. M. Lavand'homme, D. Kock, M. Waterloos, and H. , Intraoperative epidural analgesia combined with ketamine provides effective preventive analgesia in patients undergoing major digestive surgery, Anesthesiology, vol.103, pp.813-833, 2005.

J. C. Salengros, I. Huybrechts, A. Ducart, D. Faraoni, C. Marsala et al., Different anesthetic techniques associated with different incidences of chronic post-thoracotomy pain: low-dose remifentanil plus presurgical epidural analgesia is preferable to high-dose remifentanil with postsurgical epidural analgesia, J Cardiothorac.Vasc.Anesth, vol.24, pp.608-624, 2010.

C. Dualé, L. Ouchchane, P. Schoeffler, . Edonis-investigating-group, and C. Dubray, Neuropathic aspects of persistent postsurgical pain: a French multicenter survey with a 6-month prospective follow-up, J Pain, vol.15, p.24, 2014.

S. Haroutiunian, L. Nikolajsen, N. B. Finnerup, and T. S. Jensen, The neuropathic component in persistent postsurgical pain: a systematic literature review, Pain, vol.154, pp.95-102, 2013.

F. E. Lennon, J. Moss, and P. A. Singleton, The mu-opioid receptor in cancer progression: is there a direct effect, Anesthesiology, vol.116, pp.940-945, 2012.

B. Mathew, F. E. Lennon, J. Siegler, T. Mirzapoiazova, N. Mambetsariev et al., The novel role of the mu opioid receptor in lung cancer progression: a laboratory investigation

, Anesth Analg, vol.112, pp.558-67, 2011.

P. A. Singleton, T. Mirzapoiazova, R. Hasina, R. Salgia, and J. Moss, Increased mu-opioid receptor expression in metastatic lung cancer, Br J Anaesth, vol.113, issue.1, pp.103-108, 2014.

J. Nguyen, K. Luk, D. Vang, W. Soto, L. Vincent et al., Morphine stimulates cancer progression and mast cell activation and impairs survival in transgenic mice with breast cancer, Br J Anaesth, vol.113, issue.1, pp.4-13, 2014.

R. K. Grandhi and S. Lee, Abd-Elsayed A: Does opioid use cause angiogenesis and metastasis, Pain Med, vol.18, pp.140-51, 2017.

D. P. Cronin-fenton, H. , U. Ahern, T. P. Lash, T. L. Christiansen et al., Opioids and breast cancer recurrence: A Danish population-based cohort study, Cancer, vol.121, pp.3507-3521, 2015.

V. Fodale, D. 'arrigo, M. G. Triolo, S. Mondello, S. et al., Anesthetic techniques and cancer recurrence after surgery, ScientificWorldJournal, vol.2014, p.328513, 2014.

M. Looney, P. Doran, and D. J. Buggy, Effect of anesthetic technique on serum vascular endothelial growth factor C and transforming growth factor beta in women undergoing anesthesia and surgery for breast cancer, Anesthesiology, vol.113, p.1118, 2010.

J. P. Cata, M. Chavez-macgregor, V. Valero, W. Black, D. M. Black et al., The impact of paravertebral block analgesia on breast cancer survival after surgery, Reg Anesth Pain Med, vol.41, pp.696-703, 2016.

N. Wijayasinghe, K. G. Andersen, and H. Kehlet, Neural blockade for persistent pain after breast cancer surgery, Reg Anesth Pain Med, vol.39, pp.272-280, 2014.

C. Chiu, P. Aleshi, L. J. Esserman, C. Inglis-arkell, E. Yap et al., Improved analgesia and reduced post-operative nausea and vomiting after implementation of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathway for total mastectomy, BMC Anesthesiol, vol.18, p.41, 2018.

, Au moment d'être admis(e) à exercer la médecine, je promets et je jure d'être fidèle

, Mon premier souci sera de rétablir, de préserver ou de promouvoir la santé dans tous ses éléments, physiques et mentaux

, Je respecterai toutes les personnes, leur autonomie et leur volonté, sans aucune discrimination selon leur état ou leurs convictions. J'interviendrai pour les protéger si elles sont affaiblies, vulnérables ou menacées dans leur intégrité ou leur dignité. Même sous la contrainte

, Je ne tromperai jamais leur confiance et n'exploiterai pas le pouvoir hérité des circonstances pour forcer les consciences

, Je donnerai mes soins à l'indigent et à quiconque me les demandera. Je ne me laisserai pas influencer par la soif du gain ou la recherche de la gloire

, Admise dans l'intimité des personnes, je tairai les secrets qui me seront confiés

, Je ne prolongerai pas abusivement les agonies. Je ne provoquerai jamais la mort délibérément. Je préserverai l'indépendance nécessaire à l'accomplissement de ma mission. Je n'entreprendrai rien qui dépasse mes compétences. Je les entretiendrai et les perfectionnerai pour assurer au mieux les services qui me seront demandés

, J'apporterai mon aide à mes confrères ainsi qu'à leurs familles dans l'adversité

, Que les hommes et mes confrères m'accordent leur estime si je suis fidèle à mes promesses ; que je sois déshonorée et méprisée si j'y manque. En présence des Maîtres de cette FACULTE et de mes chers CONDISCIPLES, je promets et je jure d'être fidèle aux lois de l'Honneur et de la

, Admis dans l'intérieur des maisons, mes yeux ne verront pas ce qui s'y passe, ma langue taira les secrets qui me seront confiés et mon état ne servira pas à corrompre les moeurs ni à favoriser le crime

, Respectueux et reconnaissant envers mes MAÎTRES, je rendrai à leurs enfants

, Que les HOMMES m'accordent leur estime si je suis fidèle à mes promesses. Que je sois couvert d'OPPROBRE et méprisé de mes confrères si j'y manque