B. Abrams, R. Taylor, and M. A. , « A rating scale for emotional blunting, The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol.135, issue.2, pp.226-229, 1978.

A. , « Les Thérapies Comportementales et Cognitives | AFTCC », 2015.

A. Aleman, T. M. Lincoln, R. Bruggeman, I. Melle, J. Arends et al., « Treatment of Negative Symptoms: Where Do We Stand, and Where Do We Go?, Schizophrenia Research, vol.186, pp.55-62, 2017.

B. A. Alford and A. T. Beck, The Integrative Power of Cognitive Therapy, 1997.

N. C. Andreasen, « Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia. Definition and Reliability, vol.39, pp.784-88, 1982.

N. C. Andreasen, « The Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) ». The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol.155, pp.49-52, 1989.

C. Andreou, A. Treszl, D. Roesch-ely, U. Köther, R. Veckenstedt et al., « Investigation of the role of the jumping-to-conclusions bias for short-term functional outcome in schizophrenia, Psychiatry Research, vol.218, pp.341-388, 2014.

A. , « schizophrenia.pdf Guidelines, 2004.

A. , « schizophrenia-watch.pdf Guidelines », 2009.

, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5®). Arlington: American Psychiatric Association, 2013.

J. F. Artaloytia, C. Arango, A. Lahti, J. Sanz, A. Pascual et al., Randomized Trial of a Single Dose of Placebo, Haloperidol, and Risperidone in Healthy Volunteers, Negative Signs and Symptoms Secondary to Antipsychotics: A Double-Blind, vol.163, pp.488-93, 2006.

G. A. Awad, Subjective Tolerability of Antipsychotic Medications and the Emerging Science of Subjective Tolerability Disorders, Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research, vol.10, issue.1, pp.1-4, 2010.

P. Bach and S. C. Hayes, « The Use of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Prevent the Rehospitalization of Psychotic Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol.70, issue.5, pp.1129-1168, 2002.

J. Bailer, I. Takats, and C. Westermeier, Die Wirksamkeit individualisierter Kognitiver Verhaltens therapie bei schizophrener Negativsymptomatik und sozialer Behinderung: Eine kontrollierte Studie, Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie, vol.30, issue.4, pp.268-278, 2001.

A. T. Beck, Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders, 1976.

A. T. Beck and N. A. Rector, Cognitive Approaches to Schizophrenia: Theory and Therapy, vol.1, pp.577-606, 2005.

A. T. Beck, A. J. Rush, B. F. Shaw, and G. Emery, Cognitive Therapy of Depression, 1979.

V. Bell, P. W. Halligan, and H. D. Ellis, « Explaining Delusions: A Cognitive Perspective », Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol.10, issue.5, pp.219-245, 2006.

R. P. Bentall, R. Corcoran, R. Howard, N. Blackwood, and P. Kinderman, « Persecutory Delusions: A Review and Theoretical Integration », Clinical Psychology Review, vol.21, issue.8, pp.1143-92, 2001.

M. K. Benton and H. E. Schroeder, « Social skills training with schizophrenics: A meta-analytic evaluation, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol.58, issue.6, pp.741-788, 1990.

J. J. Blanchard and A. S. Cohen, The Structure of Negative Symptoms Within Schizophrenia: Implications for Assessment, vol.32, pp.238-283, 2006.

J. J. Blanchard, A. M. Kring, W. P. Horan, and R. Gur, « Toward the next Generation of Negative Symptom Assessments: The Collaboration to Advance Negative Symptom Assessment in Schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol.37, issue.2, pp.291-99, 2011.

E. Bleuler, Dementia praecox, oder Gruppe der, 1911.

R. Bottlender, M. Jäger, C. Groll, A. Strauss, and H. J. Möller, « Deficit States in Schizophrenia and Their Association with the Length of Illness and Gender, European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, vol.251, issue.6, pp.272-78, 2001.

C. C. Bow-thomas, D. I. Velligan, A. L. Miller, and J. Olsen, « Predicting Quality of Life from Symptomatology in Schizophrenia at Exacerbation and Stabilization », Psychiatry Research, vol.86, issue.2, pp.131-173, 1999.

P. Brugger, M. Regard, T. Landis, and O. Oelz, « Hallucinatory Experiences in Extreme-Altitude Climbers, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology, vol.12, issue.1, pp.67-71, 1999.

M. Brüne, Theory of Mind" in Schizophrenia: A Review of the Literature », Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol.31, issue.1, pp.21-42, 2005.

J. Brunelin, M. Mondino, L. Gassab, F. Haesebaert, L. Gaha et al., « Examining Transcranial Direct-Current Stimulation (TDCS) as a Treatment for Hallucinations in Schizophrenia, The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol.169, issue.7, pp.719-743, 2012.

R. W. Buchanan, A. Breier, B. Kirkpatrick, P. Ball, and W. T. Carpenter, « Positive and Negative Symptom Response to Clozapine in Schizophrenic Patients with and without the Deficit Syndrome, The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol.155, issue.6, pp.751-60, 1998.

D. D. Burns, The Feeling Good Handbook, 2000.

T. R. Campellone, A. H. Sanchez, and A. M. Kring, « Defeatist Performance Beliefs, Negative Symptoms, and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analytic Review », Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol.42, issue.6, pp.1343-52, 2016.

W. T. Carpenter, D. W. Heinrichs, and L. D. Alphs, Treatment of Negative Symptoms, vol.11, pp.440-52, 1985.

W. T. Carpenter, D. W. Heinrichs, and A. M. Wagman, « Deficit and Nondeficit Forms of Schizophrenia: The Concept, The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol.145, issue.5, pp.578-83, 1988.

R. Cassar, E. Applegate, and R. P. Bentall, « Poor Savouring and Low Self-Efficacy Are Predictors of Anhedonia in Patients with Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders, Psychiatry Research, vol.210, issue.3, pp.830-864, 2013.

M. Cella, A. Preti, C. Edwards, T. Dow, and T. Wykes, Cognitive Remediation for Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia: A Network Meta-Analysis », vol.52, pp.43-51, 2017.

P. Chadwick, K. N. Taylor, and N. Abba, « Mindfulness Groups for People with Psychosis, Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, vol.33, issue.3, pp.351-59, 2005.

J. Chaix, E. Ma, A. Nguyen, M. A. Ortiz-collado, S. Rexhaj et al., « Safety-Seeking Behaviours and Verbal Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia », Psychiatry Research, vol.220, issue.1-2, pp.158-62, 2014.

I. Cormac, C. Jones, C. Campbell, S. Da-mota, and J. I. Neto, Cognitive behaviour therapy for schizophrenia, 2002.

P. W. Corrigan, « Social Skills Training in Adult Psychiatric Populations: A Meta-Analysis », Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, vol.22, issue.3, pp.203-213, 1991.

J. Cottraux, Les psychothérapies cognitives et comportementales. 6e édition, 2017.

S. M. Couture, J. J. Blanchard, and M. E. Bennett, « Negative Expectancy Appraisals and Defeatist Performance Beliefs and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia, Psychiatry Research, vol.189, issue.1, pp.43-48, 2001.

J. Daléry, T. Amato, S. M. Pathologies, and . Cachan, , 2012.

J. Darbà, A. Minoves, E. Rojo, F. Jimenez, and J. Rejas, « Efficacy of Second-Generation-Antipsychotics in the Treatment of Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials, Revista De Psiquiatria Y Salud Mental, vol.4, issue.3, pp.126-169, 2011.

F. B. Dickerson and . Cognitive, Behavioral Psychotherapy for Schizophrenia: A Review of Recent Empirical Studies, Schizophrenia Research, vol.43, issue.2-3, pp.71-90, 2000.

F. B. Dickerson, J. J. Boronow, N. Ringel, and F. Parente, « Social Functioning and Neurocognitive Deficits in Outpatients with Schizophrenia: A 2-Year Follow-Up », Schizophrenia Research, vol.37, issue.1, pp.13-20, 1999.

J. J. Dlabac-de-lange, R. Knegtering, and A. Aleman, « Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia: Review and Meta-Analysis, The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol.71, issue.4, pp.411-429, 2010.

R. J. Drake, A. Pickles, R. P. Bentall, P. Kinderman, G. Haddock et al., « The Evolution of Insight, Paranoia and Depression during Early Schizophrenia, Psychological Medicine, vol.34, issue.2, pp.285-92, 2004.

D. G. Dyck, R. A. Short, M. S. Hendryx, D. Norell, M. Myers et al., Management of Negative Symptoms among Patients with Schizophrenia Attending Multiple-Family Groups, vol.51, pp.513-532, 2000.

O. Elis, J. M. Caponigro, and A. M. Kring, Psychosocial Treatments for Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Current Practices and Future Directions, vol.33, pp.914-942, 2013.

E. Erawati, B. A. Keliat, N. Helena, and A. Hamid, « The Influence of Metacognitive Training on Delusion Severity and Metacognitive Ability in Schizophrenia, Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, vol.21, issue.9, pp.841-888, 2014.

S. M. Erhart, S. R. Marder, and W. T. Carpenter, Treatment of Schizophrenia Negative Symptoms: Future Prospects, vol.32, pp.234-271, 2006.

G. Fadden, P. Bebbington, L. Kuipers, and . The, Burden of Care: The Impact of Functional Psychiatric Illness on the Patient's Family », The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science, vol.150, pp.285-92, 1987.

J. Favrod, S. Rexhaj, S. Bardy, P. Ferrari, C. Hayoz et al., Sustained Antipsychotic Effect of Metacognitive Training in Psychosis: A Randomized-Controlled Study, European Psychiatry: The Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists, vol.29, issue.5, pp.275-81, 2014.

J. Favrod, Se rétablir de la schizophrénie: Guide pratique pour les professionnels. 2e édition, 2015.

J. Favrod, F. Giuliani, F. Ernst, C. Bonsack, and . Anticipatory, Pleasure Skills Training: A New Intervention to Reduce Anhedonia in Schizophrenia », Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, vol.46, issue.3, pp.171-81, 2010.

J. Favrod, A. Nguyen, C. Fankhauser, A. Ismailaj, J. D. Hasler et al., « Positive Emotions Program for Schizophrenia (PEPS): A Pilot Intervention to Reduce Anhedonia and Apathy, BMC Psychiatry, vol.15, p.231, 2015.

G. Fervaha, H. Takeuchi, J. Lee, G. Foussias, P. J. Fletcher et al., Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.40, issue.6, pp.1539-1587, 2015.

M. Fioravanti, O. Carlone, B. Vitale, M. E. Cinti, and C. L. Meta, Analysis of Cognitive Deficits in Adults with a Diagnosis of Schizophrenia, Neuropsychology Review, vol.15, issue.2, pp.73-95, 2015.

J. H. Flavell, « Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry, American Psychologist, vol.34, issue.10, pp.906-917, 1979.

D. Freeman, P. Garety, D. Fowler, E. Kuipers, G. Dunn et al., « The London-East Anglia Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy for Psychosis. IV: Self-Esteem and Persecutory Delusions, The British Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol.37, pp.415-445, 1998.

C. Freitas, F. Fregni, A. Pascual-leone, and . Meta, Analysis of the Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (RTMS) on Negative and Positive Symptoms in Schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Research, vol.108, issue.1-3, pp.11-24, 2009.

P. Fusar-poli, E. Papanastasiou, D. Stahl, M. Rocchetti, W. Carpenter et al., Treatments of Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Meta-Analysis of 168 Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials, vol.41, pp.892-99, 2015.

D. E. Gard, A. M. Kring, M. G. Gard, W. P. Horan, and M. F. Green, Anhedonia in Schizophrenia: Distinctions between Anticipatory and Consummatory Pleasure, vol.93, pp.253-60, 2007.

P. A. Geoffroy, A. Amad, V. Camus, P. Thomas, J. A. Micoulaud-franchi et al., Référentiel de psychiatrie : Psychiatrie de l'adulte. Psychiatrie de l'enfant et de l'adolescent. Addictologie. 1re édition. Rennes; Tours: Presses universitaire François Rabelais, 2014.

J. S. Gomes, P. Shiozawa, A. M. Dias, D. Valverde-ducos, H. Akiba et al., Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Anodal TDCS Effects on Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia, vol.8, pp.989-91, 2015.

P. S. Gopinath and S. K. Chaturvedi, « Distressing Behaviour of Schizophrenics at Home, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol.86, issue.3, pp.185-88, 1992.

R. A. Gould, K. T. Mueser, E. Bolton, V. Mays, D. Goff et al., Therapy for Psychosis in Schizophrenia: An Effect Size Analysis, Schizophrenia Research, vol.48, issue.2-3, pp.335-377, 2001.

P. M. Grant and A. T. Beck, « Defeatist Beliefs as a Mediator of Cognitive Impairment, Negative Symptoms, and Functioning in Schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol.35, issue.4, pp.798-806, 2009.

P. M. Grant, K. Bredemeier, and A. T. Beck, « Six-Month Follow-Up of Recovery-Oriented Cognitive Therapy for Low-Functioning Individuals With Schizophrenia, Psychiatric Services, vol.68, issue.10, pp.997-1002, 2017.

P. M. Grant, G. A. Huh, D. Perivoliotis, N. M. Stolar, and A. T. Beck, « Randomized Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of Cognitive Therapy for Low-Functioning Patients with Schizophrenia, Archives of General Psychiatry, vol.69, issue.2, pp.121-148, 2012.

P. M. Grant, J. Reisweber, L. Luther, A. P. Brinen, and A. T. Beck, « Successfully Breaking a 20-Year Cycle of Hospitalizations with Recovery-Oriented Cognitive Therapy for Schizophrenia, Psychological Services, vol.11, issue.2, pp.125-158, 2014.

S. Grassian, Effects of Solitary Confinement, The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol.140, issue.11, pp.1450-54, 1983.

G. A. Growe, J. W. Crayton, D. B. Klass, H. Evans, and M. Strizich, Lithium in Chronic Schizophrenia, vol.136, pp.454-55, 1979.

J. D. Guelfi, F. Rouillon, and . Manuel-de-psychiatrie, , 2012.

H. Häfner, « Onset and Early Course as Determinants of the Further Course of Schizophrenia », Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. Supplementum, pp.44-48, 2000.

H. Häfner, W. Der-heiden, . Epidemiology, and . Schizophrenia, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne De Psychiatrie, vol.42, issue.2, pp.139-51, 1997.

H. Häfner, « The Course of Schizophrenia in the Light of Modern Follow-up Studies: The ABC and WHO Studies ». European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, vol.249, pp.14-26, 1999.

, « Définition / classification des handicaps (CIH et OMS), Handicap.fr, 2013.

, Guide ALD23 Schizophrénie, 2007.

E. M. Hecht and D. C. Landy, « Alpha-2 Receptor Antagonist Add-on Therapy in the Treatment of Schizophrenia; a Meta-Analysis », Schizophrenia Research, vol.134, issue.2-3, pp.202-208, 2012.

R. W. Heinrichs and K. K. Zakzanis, « Neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia: A quantitative review of the evidence », Neuropsychology, vol.12, issue.3, pp.426-471, 1998.

K. Hill, L. Mann, K. R. Laws, C. Stephenson, I. Nimmo-smith et al., Hypofrontality in Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis of Functional Imaging Studies, vol.110, pp.243-56, 2004.

B. C. Ho, P. Nopoulos, M. Flaum, S. Arndt, and N. C. Andreasen, « Two-Year Outcome in First-Episode Schizophrenia: Predictive Value of Symptoms for Quality of Life, The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol.155, issue.9, pp.1196-1201, 1998.

E. Holthausen, D. Wiersma, M. M. Sitskoorn, R. Hijman, P. M. Dingemans et al., « Schizophrenic Patients without Neuropsychological Deficits: Subgroup, Disease Severity or Cognitive Compensation?, Psychiatry Research, vol.112, issue.1, pp.1-11, 2002.

. Inserm, Psychothérapies : Trois approches évaluées, 2004.

. Inserm, , 2014.

S. Jauhar, P. J. Mckenna, J. Radua, E. Fung, R. Salvador et al., « Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for the Symptoms of Schizophrenia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with Examination of Potential Bias, The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science, vol.204, issue.1, pp.20-29, 2014.

D. C. Javitt and . Glutamatergic, The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences, vol.47, issue.1, pp.4-16, 2010.

L. C. Johns, W. Sellwood, J. Mcgovern, and G. Haddock, « Battling boredom : Group cognitive behaviour therapy for negative symptoms of schizophrenia, Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, vol.30, issue.3, pp.341-387, 2002.

D. P. Johnson, D. L. Penn, B. L. Fredrickson, A. M. Kring, P. S. Meyer et al., « A pilot study of loving-kindness meditation for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Research, vol.129, issue.2, pp.137-177, 2011.

J. T. Kantrowitz and D. C. Javitt, « N-Methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) Receptor Dysfunction or Dysregulation: The Final Common Pathway on the Road to Schizophrenia?, Brain Research Bulletin, vol.83, issue.3-4, pp.108-129, 2010.

S. R. Kay, A. Fiszbein, and L. A. Opler, The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for Schizophrenia, vol.13, pp.261-76, 1987.

M. E. Kelley, D. P. Van-kammen, and A. Dn, « Empirical Validation of Primary Negative Symptoms: Independence from Effects of Medication and Psychosis, The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol.156, issue.3, pp.406-417, 1999.

D. L. Kelly, K. M. Sullivan, J. P. Mcevoy, R. P. Mcmahon, H. J. Wehring et al.,

, Adjunctive Minocycline in Clozapine-Treated Schizophrenia Patients With Persistent Symptoms », Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol.35, issue.4, pp.374-81, 2015.

Y. Khazaal, J. Favrod, S. Azoulay, S. C. Finot, M. Bernabotto et al., Michael's Game," a Card Game for the Treatment of Psychotic Symptoms, Patient Education and Counseling, vol.83, issue.2, pp.210-226, 2011.

B. Khoury, T. Lecomte, B. A. Gaudiano, and K. Paquin, Mindfulness Interventions for Psychosis: A Meta-Analysis, vol.150, pp.176-84, 2013.

P. Kinderman and R. P. Bentall, « Causal Attributions in Paranoia and Depression: Internal, Personal, and Situational Attributions for Negative Events, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol.106, issue.2, pp.341-386, 1997.

D. G. Kingdon and D. Turkington, Thérapie cognitive de la schizophrénie, 2011.

B. Kirkpatrick, R. W. Buchanan, D. E. Ross, and W. T. Carpenter, « A Separate Disease within the Syndrome of Schizophrenia, Archives of General Psychiatry, vol.58, issue.2, pp.165-71, 2001.

B. Kirkpatrick, W. S. Fenton, W. T. Carpenter, and S. R. Marder, The NIMH-MATRICS Consensus Statement on Negative Symptoms, vol.32, pp.214-233, 2006.

B. Kirkpatrick, G. P. Strauss, L. Nguyen, B. A. Fischer, D. G. Daniel et al., The Brief Negative Symptom Scale: Psychometric Properties, vol.37, pp.300-305, 2011.

T. Kishi, N. Iwata, and . Meta, Analysis of Noradrenergic and Specific Serotonergic Antidepressant Use in Schizophrenia, The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.17, issue.2, pp.343-54, 2014.

D. N. Klein, . Depression, and ». Anhedonia, Anhedonia and Affect Deficit States, 1987.

S. Klingberg, J. Herrlich, G. Wiedemann, W. Wölwer, C. Meisner et al., Adverse Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia: Results of the Treatment of Negative Symptoms Study, vol.200, pp.569-76, 2012.

S. Klingberg, A. Wittorf, J. Herrlich, G. Wiedemann, C. Meisner et al., Cognitive Behavioural Treatment of Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia Patients: Study Design of the TONES Study, Feasibility and Safety of Treatment, vol.259, pp.149-154, 2009.

S. Klingberg, W. Wölwer, C. Engel, A. Wittorf, J. Herrlich et al., « Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia as Primary Target of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Results of the Randomized Clinical TONES Study, Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol.37, issue.2, pp.98-110, 2011.

M. Krawiecka, D. Goldberg, and M. Vaughan, « A standardized psychiatric assessment scale for rating chronic psychotic patients, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol.55, issue.4, pp.299-308, 1977.

A. M. Kring, R. E. Gur, J. J. Blanchard, W. P. Horan, and S. P. Reise, « The Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS): Final Development and Validation, The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol.170, issue.2, pp.165-72, 2013.

M. Kurimori, P. Shiozawa, M. Bikson, M. Aboseria, and Q. Cordeiro, Targeting Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Results from a Proof-of-Concept Trial Assessing Prefrontal Anodic TDCS Protocol, vol.166, pp.362-63, 2015.

C. Lançon, P. Auquier, P. M. Llorca, J. L. Martinez, T. Bougerol et al., « Etude des propriétés psychométriques de la PANSS dans sa version française dans une population de patients schizophrènes-Psychometrics properties of the PANSS in a sample of French schizophrenic patients, vol.23, pp.1-9, 1997.

Y. Lecrubier and P. Boyer, « Fiche descriptive et traduction française de la SANS, Psychiatrie & Psychobiologie, vol.2, issue.6, pp.414-438, 1987.

J. Ledoux, The Emotional Brain, 1998.

. Legifrance, Code de l'action sociale et des familles. LOI n° 2005-102 du 11 février 2005 pour l'égalité des droits et des chances, la participation et la citoyenneté des personnes handicapées, pp.2005-102

S. Leucht, C. Corves, D. Arbter, R. R. Engel, C. Li et al., « Second-Generation versus First-Generation Antipsychotic Drugs for Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis », Lancet, vol.373, issue.9657, pp.31-41, 2009.

S. Leucht, K. Komossa, C. Rummel-kluge, C. Corves, H. Hunger et al., Analysis of Head-to-Head Comparisons of Second-Generation Antipsychotics in the Treatment of Schizophrenia, The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol.166, issue.2, pp.152-63, 2009.

S. Leucht, D. Arbter, R. R. Engel, W. Kissling, and J. M. Davis, « How Effective Are Second-Generation Antipsychotic Drugs? A Meta-Analysis of Placebo-Controlled Trials, Molecular Psychiatry, vol.14, issue.4, pp.429-476, 2009.

S. Leucht, G. Pitschel-walz, R. R. Engel, W. Kissling, and . Amisulpride, Antipsychotic: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol.159, issue.2, pp.180-90, 2002.

R. Lewine, L. Fogg, and H. Y. Meltzer, « Assessment of negative and positive symptoms in schizophrenia, Schizophrenia bulletin, vol.9, issue.3, pp.368-76, 1983.

P. F. Liddle and T. R. Barnes, « The Subjective Experience of Deficits in Schizophrenia, Comprehensive Psychiatry, vol.29, issue.2, pp.157-64, 1988.

E. Liemburg, S. Castelein, R. Stewart, M. Van-der-gaag, A. Aleman et al., Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) Investigators. « Two Subdomains of Negative Symptoms in Psychotic Disorders: Established and Confirmed in Two Large Cohorts, Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol.47, issue.6, pp.718-743, 2013.

F. Liu, X. Guo, R. Wu, J. Ou, Y. Zheng et al., Minocycline Supplementation for Treatment of Negative Symptoms in Early-Phase Schizophrenia: A Double Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial, vol.153, pp.169-76, 2014.

D. Lukoff, K. H. Nuechterlein, and J. Ventura, « Manual for the expanded brief psychiatric rating scale ». Schizophrenia bulletin, vol.12, pp.594-602, 1986.

P. M. Lund, « Marathon Volleyball: Changes after 61 Hours Play, » British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol.19, issue.4, pp.228-257, 1985.

K. Maurer and H. Häfner, Methodological Aspects of Onset Assessment in Schizophrenia ». Schizophrenia Research, vol.15, issue.3, pp.265-76, 1995.

S. R. Mcgurk, E. W. Twamley, D. I. Sitzer, G. J. Mchugo, K. T. Mueser et al.,

, Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia, The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol.164, issue.12, pp.1791-1802, 2007.

J. A. Micoulaud-franchi, C. Quiles, R. Belzeaux, M. Adida, and J. M. Azorin, « Symptômes négatifs de la schizophrénie : de l'électrophysiologie à l'électrothérapie, L'Encéphale, vol.41, issue.6, pp.50-56, 2015.

J. A. Micoulaud-franchi, C. Quiles, and . Électroconvulsivothérapie, Neurophysiologie clinique en psychiatrie, pp.133-164, 2015.

P. Milev, B. C. Ho, S. Arndt, and N. C. Andreasen, « Predictive Values of Neurocognition and Negative Symptoms on Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia: A Longitudinal First-Episode Study with 7-Year Follow-Up, The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol.162, issue.3, pp.495-506, 2005.

C. Mirabel-sarron and L. Vera, L'entretien en thérapie comportementale et cognitive. 3ème éd, 2011.

H. J. Möller, « Clinical Evaluation of Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia, European Psychiatry: The Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists, vol.22, issue.6, pp.380-86, 2007.

H. J. Möller and P. Czobor, « Pharmacological Treatment of Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia ». European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, vol.265, pp.567-78, 2015.

M. Mondino, R. Jardri, M. F. Suaud-chagny, M. Saoud, E. Poulet et al., « Effects of Fronto-Temporal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Auditory Verbal Hallucinations and Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Left Temporo-Parietal Junction in Patients With Schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol.42, issue.2, pp.318-344, 2016.

S. Moritz, R. Veckenstedt, C. Andreou, F. Bohn, B. Hottenrott et al., « Sustained and "Sleeper" Effects of Group Metacognitive Training for Schizophrenia: A Randomized Clinical Trial, JAMA Psychiatry, vol.71, issue.10, pp.1103-1114, 2014.

S. Moritz and T. S. Woodward, « The Contribution of Metamemory Deficits to Schizophrenia », Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol.115, issue.1, pp.15-25, 2006.

S. Moritz and T. S. Woodward, « A Generalized Bias against Disconfirmatory Evidence in Schizophrenia, Psychiatry Research, vol.142, issue.2-3, pp.157-65, 2006.

S. Moritz, T. S. Woodward, and E. Chen, « Investigation of Metamemory Dysfunctions in First-Episode Schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Research, vol.81, issue.2-3, pp.247-52, 2006.

S. Moritz, T. S. Woodward, M. Study-group, I. Mccluskey, and J. Favrod, Entraînement des habiletés métacognitives pour les personnes atteintes de schizophrénie (EMC), 2007.

F. Mouaffak, Y. Morvan, S. Bannour, M. Chayet, M. C. Bourdel et al.,

, « Validation de la version française de l'échelle abrégée d'appréciation psychiatrique étendue avec ancrage, BPRS-E(A) ». Encéphale, vol.36, issue.4, pp.294-301, 2010.

, « full-guideline-pdf-490503565, 2014.

, « Psychosis and schizophrenia in adults prevention and management, 2014.

, Psychosis and Schizophrenia in Adults | Guidance and Guidelines | NICE, 2015.

M. L. Oldridge and I. C. Hughes, « Psychological Well-Being in Families with a Member Suffering from Schizophrenia. An Investigation into Long-Standing Problems, The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science, vol.161, pp.249-51, 1992.

M. Oorschot, T. Lataster, V. Thewissen, M. Lardinois, M. Wichers et al., Myin-Germeys I. « Emotional Experience in Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia-No Evidence for a Generalized Hedonic Deficit, Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol.39, issue.1, pp.217-242, 2013.

K. Oya, T. Kishi, and N. Iwata, « Efficacy and Tolerability of Minocycline Augmentation Therapy in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials, Human Psychopharmacology, vol.29, issue.5, pp.483-91, 2014.

D. L. Penn, K. T. Mueser, N. Tarrier, A. Gloege, C. Cather et al., Supportive Therapy for Schizophrenia: Possible Mechanisms and Implications for Adjunctive Psychosocial Treatments, vol.30, pp.101-113, 2004.

D. Perivoliotis and C. Cather, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy of Negative Symptoms, vol.65, pp.815-845, 2009.

E. Peters, P. Garety, and . Cognitive, Delusions: A Longitudinal Analysis, vol.44, pp.481-514, 2006.

P. Philip, J. Demotes-mainard, M. Bourgeois, and J. D. Vincent, Efficiency of Transcranial Electrostimulation on Anxiety and Insomnia Symptoms during a Washout Period in Depressed Patients. A Double-Blind Study, vol.29, pp.451-56, 1991.

S. Pilling, P. Bebbington, E. Kuipers, P. Garety, J. Geddes et al., « Psychological Treatments in Schizophrenia: I. Meta-Analysis of Family Intervention and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Psychological Medicine, vol.32, issue.5, pp.763-82, 2002.

M. F. Pogue-geile and M. Harrow, « Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: their longitudinal course and prognostic importance, Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol.11, issue.3, pp.427-466, 1985.

K. Pos, N. Franke, F. Smit, B. Wijnen, A. Staring et al., Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Social Activation in Recent-Onset Psychosis: Randomized Controlled Trial, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol.87, issue.2, pp.151-160, 2019.

H. L. Provencher and K. T. Mueser, « Positive and Negative Symptom Behaviors and Caregiver Burden in the Relatives of Persons with Schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Research, vol.26, issue.1, pp.71-80, 1997.

C. Quiles, E. Bosc, and H. Verdoux, « Altérations cognitives et plaintes mnésiques lors d'un traitement par électroconvulsivothérapie : revue de la littérature ». Annales médicopsychologique, vol.171, pp.285-294, 2013.

L. Raj, P. Kulhara, and A. Avasthi, « Social Burden of Positive and Negative Schizophrenia, International Journal of Social Psychiatry, vol.37, issue.4, pp.242-50, 1991.

N. A. Rector and A. T. Beck, « Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Schizophrenia: An Empirical Review, The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol.189, issue.5, pp.278-87, 2001.

N. A. Rector, Dysfunctional Attitudes and Symptom Expression in Schizophrenia: Differential Associations With Paranoid Delusions and Negative Symptoms, vol.18, pp.163-73, 2004.

N. A. Rector, A. T. Beck, and N. Stolar, The Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia: A Cognitive Perspective, vol.50, pp.247-57, 2005.

N. A. Rector, M. V. Seeman, and Z. V. Segal, « Cognitive Therapy for Schizophrenia: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial, Schizophrenia Research, vol.63, issue.1-2, pp.1-11, 2003.

P. Richardson, K. Jones, C. Evans, P. Stevens, and A. Rowe, « Exploratory RCT of Art Therapy as an adjunctive treatment in schizophrenia », Journal of Mental Health, vol.16, issue.4, pp.483-91, 2009.

P. Rocca, M. Giugiario, C. Montemagni, C. Rigazzi, G. Rocca et al., « Quality of life and psychopathology during the course of schizophrenia, Comprehensive Psychiatry, vol.50, issue.6, pp.542-590, 2009.

M. A. Roy, M. Maziade, A. Labbé, and C. Mérette, « Male Gender Is Associated with Deficit Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis », Schizophrenia Research, vol.47, issue.2-3, pp.141-188, 2001.

J. D. Safran and Z. V. Segal, Interpersonal Process in Cognitive Therapy

F. Sarin and L. Wallin, Cognitive Model and Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Schizophrenia: An Overview, vol.68, pp.145-53, 2014.

F. Sarin, L. Wallin, and B. Widerlöv, « Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analytical Review of Randomized Controlled Trials, Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, vol.65, issue.3, pp.162-74, 2011.

W. Schultz, « Getting Formal with Dopamine and Reward », Neuron, vol.36, issue.2, pp.241-63, 2002.

J. P. Selten, D. Wiersma, and R. J. Van-den-bosch, Discrepancy between Subjective and Objective Ratings for Negative Symptoms, vol.34, pp.11-13, 2000.

J. P. Selten, N. Sijben, R. J. Van-den-bosch, J. Omloo-visser, and H. Warmerdam, « The Subjective Experience of Negative Symptoms: A self-rating scale, Comprehensive Psychiatry, vol.34, issue.3, pp.192-97, 1993.

T. Sensky, D. Turkington, D. Kingdon, J. L. Scott, J. Scott et al., « A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Persistent Symptoms in Schizophrenia Resistant to Medication, Archives of General Psychiatry, vol.57, issue.2, pp.165-72, 2000.

C. Shi, X. Yu, E. Cheung, D. Shum, and R. Chan, Revisiting the Therapeutic Effect of RTMS on Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: A Meta-Analysis », vol.215, pp.505-518, 2014.

S. P. Singh, V. Singh, N. Kar, and K. Chan, Efficacy of Antidepressants in Treating the Negative Symptoms of Chronic Schizophrenia: Meta-Analysis, vol.197, pp.174-79, 2010.

P. D. Slade, « Sensory Deprivation and Clinical Psychiatry, British Journal of Hospital Medicine, vol.32, issue.5, pp.256-60, 1984.

J. G. Small, J. J. Kellams, V. Milstein, and M. J. Placebo, Controlled Study of Lithium Combined with Neuroleptics in Chronic Schizophrenic Patients, vol.132, pp.1315-1332, 1975.

S. H. So, D. Freeman, G. Dunn, S. Kapur, E. Kuipers et al.,

, « Jumping to Conclusions, a Lack of Belief Flexibility and Delusional Conviction in Psychosis: A Longitudinal Investigation of the Structure, Frequency, and Relatedness of Reasoning Biases, vol.121, pp.129-168, 2012.

S. M. Stahl and P. F. Buckley, « Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia: A Problem That Will Not Go Away, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol.115, issue.1, pp.4-11, 2007.

A. Staring, T. Huurne, M. Van-der-gaag, and M. , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Negative Symptoms (CBT-n) in Psychotic Disorders: A Pilot Study, vol.44, pp.300-306, 2013.

A. Staring and M. Van-der-gaag, Cognitieve therapie voor demoralisatie bij schizofrenie, vol.43, p.205, 2010.

M. Startup, J. Mc, S. Bendix, and . North, Wales Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Acute Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: Outcomes at 6 and 12

». Months, Psychological Medicine, vol.34, issue.3, pp.413-435, 2004.

E. Stip and G. Letourneau, Psychotic Symptoms as a Continuum between Normality and Pathology, vol.54, pp.140-51, 2009.

A. P. Strafella, T. Paus, J. Barrett, and A. Dagher, « Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Human Prefrontal Cortex Induces Dopamine Release in the Caudate Nucleus, The Journal of Neuroscience, vol.21, issue.15, p.157, 2001.

N. T. Tabak, W. P. Horan, and M. F. Green, Mindfulness in Schizophrenia: Associations with Self-Reported Motivation, Emotion Regulation, Dysfunctional Attitudes, and Negative Symptoms, vol.168, pp.537-579, 2015.

V. Terevnikov, G. Joffe, and J. H. Stenberg, Randomized Controlled Trials of Add-On Antidepressants in Schizophrenia, vol.18, 2015.

J. Tiihonen, K. Wahlbeck, and V. Kiviniemi, « The Efficacy of Lamotrigine in Clozapine-Resistant Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis », Schizophrenia Research, vol.109, issue.1-3, pp.10-14, 2009.

P. Trower, M. Birchwood, A. Meaden, S. Byrne, N. A. et al., Therapy for Command Hallucinations: Randomised Controlled Trial, vol.184, pp.312-332, 2004.

H. J. Tuominen, J. Tiihonen, K. Wahlbeck, and . Glutamatergic, Drugs for Schizophrenia ». The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2006.

D. Turkington, D. Kingdon, and P. J. Weiden, Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Schizophrenia, vol.163, pp.365-73, 2006.

D. Turkington, D. Kingdon, S. Rathod, K. Hammond, J. Pelton et al., « Outcomes of an Effectiveness Trial of Cognitive-Behavioural Intervention by Mental Health Nurses in Schizophrenia, The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science, vol.189, issue.1, pp.36-40, 2006.

D. Turkington, T. Sensky, J. Scott, T. Barnes, U. Nur et al., « A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Persistent Symptoms in Schizophrenia: A Five-Year Follow-Up », Schizophrenia Research, vol.98, issue.1-3, pp.1-7, 2008.

G. Ulrich, T. Houtmans, and C. Gold, « The Additional Therapeutic Effect of Group Music Therapy for Schizophrenic Patients: A Randomized Study, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol.116, issue.5, pp.362-70, 2007.

C. E. Vaughn, Patterns of interactions in families of schizophrenics, Die andere Seite der Schizophrenie : Patienten zu Hause, 1977.

S. Veerman, P. Schulte, M. Begemann, F. Engelsbel, and . De-haan, Clozapine Augmented with Glutamate Modulators in Refractory Schizophrenia: A Review and Metaanalysis, vol.47, pp.185-94, 2014.

S. Veerman, P. Schulte, J. D. Smith, and . De-haan, Memantine Augmentation in Clozapine-Refractory Schizophrenia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, vol.46, pp.1909-1930, 2016.

D. I. Velligan and L. D. Alphs, Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: The Importance of Identification and Treatment, vol.25, 2008.

E. Velthorst, M. Koeter, M. Van-der-gaag, D. H. Nieman, A. Fett et al., Adapted Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy Required for Targeting Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression, vol.45, pp.453-65, 2015.

H. Verdoux and J. Van-os, Psychotic symptoms in non-clinical populations and the continuum of psychosis, Schizophrenia Research, vol.54, issue.1, pp.59-65, 2002.

C. Vidal, C. Reese, B. A. Fischer, J. Chiapelli, S. Himelhoch et al., Analysis of Efficacy of Mirtazapine as an Adjunctive Treatment of Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia, Clinical Schizophrenia & Related Psychoses, vol.9, issue.2, pp.88-95, 2015.

S. Vidal and P. Huguelet, Thérapie cognitive basée sur le concept de rétablissement pour la schizophrénie : un cas clinique », Journal de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive, vol.29, issue.2, pp.57-66, 2018.

K. Wahlbeck, M. Cheine, A. Essali, and C. Adams, « Evidence of Clozapine's Effectiveness in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials, The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol.156, issue.7, pp.990-99, 1999.

D. M. Wegner, D. J. Schneider, S. R. Carter, and T. L. White, « Paradoxical Effects of Thought Suppression, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.53, issue.1, pp.5-13, 1987.

, Genève: Organisation Mondiale de la Santé, WHO. Classification internationale du fonctionnement, du handicap et de la santé: CIF. éd, 2001.

A. Wittorf, R. Weber, J. Herrlich, G. Wiedemann, W. Wölwer et al., Treatment Acceptance and Therapeutic Relationship in the Early Stage of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia, vol.27, pp.1007-1013, 2008.

U. Wunderlich, G. Wiedemann, G. Buchkremer, and . Sind, Psychosoziale Interventionen Bei Schizophrenen Patienten Wirksam?, Eine Metaanalyse ». Verhaltenstherapie, vol.6, issue.1, pp.4-13, 1996.

T. Wykes, V. Huddy, C. Cellard, S. R. Mcgurk, P. Czobor et al., Analysis of Cognitive Remediation for Schizophrenia: Methodology and Effect Sizes, vol.168, pp.472-85, 2011.

T. Wykes, C. Steel, B. Everitt, and N. Tarrier, Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Schizophrenia: Effect Sizes, vol.34, pp.523-560, 2008.