. Vi and . References,

M. De-onis and M. Blössner, WHO Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition, p.74

C. G. Victora, L. Adair, C. Fall, P. C. Hallal, R. Martorell et al., Maternal and child undernutrition: consequences for adult health and human capital, Lancet Lond Engl. 26 janv, vol.371, issue.9609, pp.340-57, 2008.

R. E. Black, C. G. Victora, S. P. Walker, Z. A. Bhutta, P. Christian et al., Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries, Lancet Lond Engl. 3 août, vol.382, issue.9890, pp.427-51, 2013.

K. K. Teo, T. Rafiq, S. S. Anand, K. M. Schulze, S. Yusuf et al., Associations of cardiometabolic outcomes with indices of obesity in children aged 5 years and younger, PloS One, vol.14, issue.7, p.218816, 2019.

E. R. Pulgaron and A. M. Delamater, Obesity and type 2 diabetes in children: epidemiology and treatment, Curr Diab Rep. août, vol.14, issue.8, p.508, 2014.

A. Engin, The Definition and Prevalence of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, Adv Exp Med Biol, vol.960, pp.1-17, 2017.

R. Hankard, V. Colomb, H. Piloquet, A. Bocquet, J. Bresson et al., Dépister la dénutrition de l'enfant en pratique courante. Arch Pédiatrie, vol.19, pp.1110-1117, 2012.

R. Shrimpton, C. G. Victora, M. Onis, . De, R. C. Lima et al., Worldwide Timing of Growth Faltering: Implications for Nutritional Interventions, Pediatrics. 1 mai, vol.107, issue.5, pp.75-75, 2001.

S. Grantham-mcgregor, Y. B. Cheung, S. Cueto, P. Glewwe, L. Richter et al., Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries, Lancet. 6 janv, vol.369, issue.9555, pp.60-70, 2007.


T. Ahmed, S. Rahman, and A. Cravioto, Oedematous malnutrition, Indian J Med Res, vol.130, issue.5, pp.651-655, 2009.

A. Datta-chaudhuri, A. K. Bhattacharyya, and A. M. Mukherjee, The liver in pre-kwashiorkor and kwashiorkor-marasmus syndromes, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1 janv, vol.66, issue.2, pp.258-62, 1972.

H. Kismul, C. Schwinger, M. Chhagan, M. Mapatano, and J. Van-den-broeck, Incidence and course of child malnutrition according to clinical or anthropometrical assessment: a longitudinal study from rural DR Congo, BMC Pediatr. 28 janv, vol.14, issue.1, p.22, 2014.

L. E. Caulfield, M. De-onis, M. Blössner, and R. E. Black, Undernutrition as an underlying cause of child deaths associated with diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, and measles, Am J Clin Nutr. 1 juill, vol.80, issue.1, pp.193-201, 2004.

K. Jones and J. A. Berkley, Severe acute malnutrition and infection. Paediatr Int Child Health, vol.34, pp.1-29, 2014.

M. K. Ibrahim, M. Zambruni, C. L. Melby, and P. C. Melby, Impact of Childhood Malnutrition on Host Defense and Infection, Clin Microbiol Rev, vol.30, issue.4, pp.919-71, 2017.

P. Chevalier, R. Sevilla, L. Zalles, E. Sejas, G. Belmonte et al.,

, Sante Montrouge Fr. août, vol.6, issue.4, pp.201-209, 1996.

A. D. Widodo, I. S. Timan, S. Bardosono, W. Winarta, D. Prasetyo et al., Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in malnourished children and those with persistent diarrhoeae

, Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. déc, vol.25, issue.1, pp.57-61, 2016.

, Cadre Intégré de Classification de la Phase Humanitaire et de la Sécurité Alimentaire, IPC | IPC Global Platform

, Integrated Food Security Phase Classification | FAO-EU Partnership | Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

S. Farigoul, Objectifs de développement durable

. A-propos-de-madagascar and . Le-pnud-À-madagascar,

|. Madagascar and . Platform,

H. Rakotomanana, G. E. Gates, D. Hildebrand, and B. J. Stoecker, Determinants of stunting in children under 5 years in Madagascar, Matern Child Nutr, vol.13, issue.4, 2017.

B. Preethi, T. P. Sabin, J. A. Adedoyin, and K. Ashok, Impacts of the ENSO Modoki and other Tropical Indo-Pacific Climate-Drivers on African Rainfall. Sci Rep, vol.5, p.16653, 2015.

A. Anyamba, J. Chretien, S. C. Britch, R. P. Soebiyanto, J. L. Small et al., Global Disease Outbreaks Associated with the, El Niño Event. Sci Rep. 13 févr, vol.9, issue.1, p.1930, 2015.

. Pnan-iii--, Plan National d'Action pour la Nutrition 2017 -2021 | Office National de Nutrition

M. Myatt, T. Khara, and S. Collins, A review of methods to detect cases of severely malnourished children in the community for their admission into community-based therapeutic care programs, Food Nutr Bull. sept, vol.27, issue.3, pp.7-23, 2006.

M. De-onis, C. Garza, A. W. Onyango, and M. Rolland-cachera, Les standards de croissance de l'Organisation mondiale de la santé pour les nourrissons et les jeunes enfants, Arch Pédiatrie. janv, vol.16, issue.1, pp.47-53, 2009.

, WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. WHO Child Growth Standards based on length/height, weight and age, Acta Paediatr Oslo Nor, vol.450, pp.76-85, 1992.

, Assessment of differences in linear growth among populations in the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study, Acta Paediatr Oslo Nor, vol.450, pp.56-65, 1992.

P. V. Hamill, T. A. Drizd, C. L. Johnson, R. B. Reed, A. F. Roche et al., Physical growth: National Center for Health Statistics percentiles, Am J Clin Nutr. mars, vol.32, issue.3, pp.607-636, 1979.

. Who-|-training, Guideline: Updates on the Management of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Infants and Children. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2013.

M. Lazzerini, L. Rubert, and P. Pani, Specially formulated foods for treating children with moderate acute malnutrition in low-and middle-income countries, Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 21 juin, issue.6, p.9584, 2013.

A. Schoonees, M. Lombard, A. Musekiwa, E. Nel, and J. Volmink, Ready-to-use therapeutic food for home-based treatment of severe acute malnutrition in children from six months to five years of age, Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 6 juin, issue.6, p.2013, 2013.

I. Trehan, H. S. Goldbach, L. N. Lagrone, G. J. Meuli, R. J. Wang et al., Antibiotics as part of the management of severe acute malnutrition, N Engl J Med. 31 janv, vol.368, issue.5, pp.425-460, 2013.

I. Trehan, R. E. Amthor, K. Maleta, and M. J. Manary, Evaluation of the routine use of amoxicillin as part of the home-based treatment of severe acute malnutrition, Trop Med Int Health TM IH. sept, vol.15, issue.9, pp.1022-1030, 2010.

E. Démographique, |. De-santé-de-madagascar, and . Edsmd-iv, , 2008.

L. Robson, M. Holston, C. Savitzky, and V. Mohan, Integrating Community-Based Family Planning Services with Local Marine Conservation Initiatives in Southwest Madagascar: Changes in Contraceptive Use and Fertility, Stud Fam Plann, vol.48, issue.1, pp.73-82, 2017.

C. R. Rabaoarisoa, R. Rakotoarison, N. H. Rakotonirainy, R. T. Mangahasimbola, A. B. Randrianarisoa et al., The importance of public health, poverty reduction programs and women's empowerment in the reduction of child stunting in rural areas of Moramanga and Morondava, Madagascar. PLoS ONE, vol.12, issue.10, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01634994

, Évaluation PECMAS dans les districts d'Ampanihy et Betioky

G. T. Heikens, 75 years of Kwashiorkor if Africa, p.5

H. Ciliberto, M. Ciliberto, A. Briend, P. Ashorn, D. Bier et al., Antioxidant supplementation for the prevention of kwashiorkor in Malawian children: randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial, BMJ. 14 mai, vol.330, issue.7500, p.1109, 2005.

K. Kristensen, M. Wiese, M. Rytter, M. Özçam, L. H. Hansen et al., Gut Microbiota in Children Hospitalized with Oedematous and Non-Oedematous Severe Acute Malnutrition in Uganda, PLoS Negl Trop Dis. janv, vol.10, issue.1, p.4369, 2016.

L. V. Blanton, M. R. Charbonneau, T. Salih, M. J. Barratt, S. Venkatesh et al., Gut bacteria that prevent growth impairments transmitted by microbiota from malnourished children, Science. 19 févr, issue.6275, p.351, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01439088

P. Vonaesch, E. Morien, L. Andrianonimiadana, H. Sanke, J. Mbecko et al., Stunted childhood growth is associated with decompartmentalization of the gastrointestinal tract and overgrowth of oropharyngeal taxa, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.115, issue.36, pp.8489-98, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01925069

P. Vonaesch, R. Randremanana, J. Gody, J. Collard, T. Giles-vernick et al., Identifying the etiology and pathophysiology underlying stunting and environmental enteropathy: study protocol of the AFRIBIOTA project, BMC Pediatr, vol.19, issue.1, p.236, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01913093

M. De-fátima-costa-caminha, A. Da-silva-diniz, A. R. Falbo, I. De-arruda, V. B. Serva et al., Serum retinol concentrations in hospitalized severe proteinenergy malnourished children, J Trop Pediatr. août, vol.54, issue.4, pp.248-52, 2008.

M. N. Ashour, S. I. Salem, H. M. El-gadban, N. M. Elwan, and T. K. Basu, Antioxidant status in children with protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) living in Cairo, Egypt, Eur J Clin Nutr. août, vol.53, issue.8, pp.669-73, 1999.

D. Mahalanabis, Breast feeding and vitamin A deficiency among children attending a diarrhoea treatment centre in Bangladesh: a case-control study, BMJ. 31 août, vol.303, issue.6801, pp.493-499, 1991.

A. Imdad, M. Y. Yakoob, C. Sudfeld, B. A. Haider, R. E. Black et al., Impact of vitamin A supplementation on infant and childhood mortality, BMC Public Health. 13 avr, vol.11, 2011.

L. Ezzell and G. L. Jensen, Malnutrition in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Am J Clin Nutr. déc, vol.72, issue.6, pp.1415-1421, 2000.

M. Makoni, Madagascar's battle for health, Lancet Lond Engl. 23 mars, vol.393, pp.1189-90, 2019.

R. M. D'souza, D. Souza, and R. , Vitamin A for the treatment of children with measles--a systematic review, J Trop Pediatr, vol.48, issue.6, pp.323-330, 2002.

G. D. Hussey and M. Klein, A randomized, controlled trial of vitamin A in children with severe measles, N Engl J Med. 19 juill, vol.323, issue.3, pp.160-164, 1990.

. Vii and . Annexes, Annexe 1 : Classification détaillée de l'insécurité alilmentaire selon l'IPC. (TBM = taux brut de mortalité)

, Annexe 2 : Table unisexe OMS utilisée pour le calcul du Z-score du rapport P/T chez les enfants de moins de 120 cm

, Table unisexe des percentiles des rapports P/T, vol.3

, Abaques des quantités d'ATPE à manger en fonction du poids pour le test de l'appétit. ATPE = Aliment Thérapeutique Prêt à l'Emploi, vol.4

, Calendrier vaccinal malgache mis à jour 2019. DTC : Diphtérie grande valence, tétanos, Coqueluche, Annexe, vol.5

, Hib = Haemophilus influenzae de type b

. Pcv-=-pneumococcal, Conjugate Vaccine ; VPO = Vaccin Polio Oral

. Var-=-vaccin-anti-rougeole,