F. Barbut and J. L. Meynard, Managing antibiotic associated diarrhoea, BMJ, 2002.

, Jun, vol.8, issue.7350, pp.1345-1351

J. G. Bartlett, T. W. Chang, M. Gurwith, S. L. Gorbach, and A. B. Onderdonk, Antibioticassociated pseudomembranous colitis due to toxin-producing clostridia, N Engl J Med, vol.298, issue.10, pp.531-535, 1978.

L. V. Mcfarland, Epidemiology, risk factors and treatments for antibioticassociated diarrhea. Dig Dis, vol.16, pp.292-307, 1998.

C. Hill, F. Guarner, G. Reid, G. R. Gibson, D. J. Merenstein et al., The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic, Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, vol.11, issue.8, pp.506-520, 2014.

F. Shanahan, Probiotics in perspective, Gastroenterology, 2010.

P. Marteau, D. Place, and . Clostridium-difficile, , p.4

K. Jones, Probiotics: Preventing Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea, Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, vol.15, issue.2, pp.160-162, 2010.

H. Szajewska and M. Ko?odziej, Systematic review with meta-analysis: Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol.42, issue.7, pp.793-801, 2015.

D. Moher, A. Liberati, J. Tetzlaff, and D. G. Altman, Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement, BMJ, 2009.

, Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions

, Available from: /handbook

V. Zaugg, V. Savoldelli, B. Sabatier, and P. Durieux, Améliorer les pratiques et l'organisation des soins : méthodologie des revues systématiques, Sante Publique, 2014.

S. Hopewell, S. Mcdonald, M. Clarke, and M. Egger, Grey literature in meta-analyses of randomized trials of health care interventions. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, p.10, 2007.

K. F. Schulz, D. G. Altman, D. Moher, and . Group, CONSORT 2010 statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials, BMJ, vol.340, p.332, 2010.

A. R. Jadad, R. A. Moore, D. Carroll, C. Jenkinson, D. J. Reynolds et al., Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary?, Control Clin Trials, vol.17, issue.1, pp.1-12, 1996.

M. Gedda, Traduction française des lignes directrices PRISMA pour l'écriture et la lecture des revues systématiques et des méta-analyses. Kinésithérapie, la Revue, vol.15, pp.39-44, 2015.

S. Ehrhardt, N. Guo, R. Hinz, S. Schoppen, J. May et al.,

, Saccharomyces boulardii to Prevent Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea: A Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Open Forum Infect Dis, 2016.

M. Kotowska, P. Albrecht, and H. Szajewska, Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol.21, issue.5, pp.583-90, 2005.

D. G. Duman, S. Bor, O. Ozütemiz, T. Sahin, D. O?uz et al., Efficacy and safety of Saccharomyces boulardii in prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea due to Helicobacterpylori eradication, Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, vol.17, issue.12, pp.1357-61, 2005.

L. V. Mcfarland, C. M. Surawicz, R. N. Greenberg, G. W. Elmer, K. A. Moyer et al., Prevention of beta-lactam-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii compared with placebo, Am J Gastroenterol, vol.90, issue.3, pp.439-487, 1995.

P. Pozzoni, A. Riva, A. G. Bellatorre, M. Amigoni, E. Redaelli et al.,

, Saccharomyces boulardii for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adult hospitalized patients: a single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Am J Gastroenterol, vol.107, issue.6, pp.922-953, 2012.

M. Cindoruk, G. Erkan, T. Karakan, A. Dursun, and S. Unal, Efficacy and safety of Saccharomyces boulardii in the 14-day triple anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy: a prospective randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study, Helicobacter, vol.12, issue.4, pp.309-325, 2007.

M. Can, B. A. Be?irbellioglu, I. Y. Avci, C. M. Beker, and A. Pahsa, Prophylactic Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a prospective study, Med Sci Monit, vol.12, issue.4, pp.19-22, 2006.

F. Cremonini, D. Caro, S. Covino, M. Armuzzi, A. Gabrielli et al., Effect of different probiotic preparations on anti-helicobacter pylori therapy-related side effects: a parallel group, triple blind, placebo-controlled study, Am J Gastroenterol, vol.97, issue.11, pp.2744-2753, 2002.

S. J. Lewis, L. F. Potts, and R. E. Barry, The lack of therapeutic effect of Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-related diarrhoea in elderly patients, J Infect, vol.36, issue.2, pp.171-175, 1998.

C. M. Surawicz, G. W. Elmer, P. Speelman, L. V. Mcfarland, J. Chinn et al., Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii: a prospective study, Gastroenterology, vol.96, issue.4, pp.981-989, 1989.

Y. W. Chang, Y. M. Park, C. H. Oh, S. J. Oh, J. Cho et al., Effects of probiotics or broccoli supplementation on Helicobacter pylori eradication with standard clarithromycin-based triple therapy, Korean J Intern Med, 2019.

O. Erdeve, U. Tiras, and Y. Dallar, The probiotic effect of Saccharomyces boulardii in a pediatric age group, J Trop Pediatr, vol.50, issue.4, pp.234-240, 2004.

L. Shan, P. Hou, Z. Wang, F. Liu, C. N. Shu et al., Prevention and treatment of diarrhoea with Saccharomyces boulardii in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections, Benef Microbes, vol.4, issue.4, pp.329-363, 2013.

, Clinical Risk Factors for Severe Clostridium Difficile-Associated Disease -PubMed, 2020.

K. Yousuf, M. G. Saklayen, R. J. Markert, C. J. Barde, and N. Gopalswamy, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and chronic renal insufficiency, South Med J, vol.95, issue.7, pp.681-684, 2002.

R. Eddi, M. N. Malik, R. Shakov, W. J. Baddoura, C. Chandran et al., Chronic kidney disease as a risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection, Nephrology

K. Whelan and C. E. Myers, Safety of probiotics in patients receiving nutritional support: a systematic review of case reports, randomized controlled trials, and nonrandomized trials, Am J Clin Nutr, vol.91, issue.3, pp.687-703, 2010.

, Saccharomyces boulardii (ultra-levure) : ajout d'une contre-indication chez les patients en état critique ou immunodéprimés -Lettres aux professionnels de santé -ANSM : Agence nationale de sécurité du médicament et des produits de santé, 2020.

, Invasive infections due to Saccharomyces boulardii (Ultra-levure), Prescrire Int, vol.16, issue.89, p.110, 2007.

H. Szajewska and M. Ko?odziej, Systematic review with meta-analysis: Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol.42, issue.7, pp.793-801, 2015.

L. V. Mcfarland, Systematic review and meta-analysis of Saccharomyces boulardii in adult patients, World J Gastroenterol, vol.16, issue.18, pp.2202-2224, 2010.

L. V. Mcfarland, Meta-analysis of probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea and the treatment of Clostridium difficile disease, Am J Gastroenterol, vol.101, issue.4, pp.812-834, 2006.

H. Szajewska, M. Ruszczy?ski, and A. Radzikowski, Probiotics in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, The Journal of Pediatrics, vol.149, issue.3, pp.367-372, 2006.

X. W. Gao, M. Mubasher, C. Y. Fang, C. Reifer, and L. E. Miller, Dose-response efficacy of a proprietary probiotic formula of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285 and Lactobacillus casei LBC80R for antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea prophylaxis in adult patients, Am J Gastroenterol, vol.105, issue.7, pp.1636-1677, 2010.