, ESC Guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of aortic diseases: Document covering acute and chronic aortic diseases of the thoracic and abdominal aorta of the adultThe Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Aortic Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), Eur Heart J, vol.35, issue.41, pp.2873-926, 2014.

L. F. Hiratzka, G. L. Bakris, J. A. Beckman, R. M. Bersin, V. F. Carr et al., , 2010.

A. Scai/sir/sts/, SVM guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with Thoracic Aortic Disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American College of Radiology, Circulation. 6 avr, vol.121, issue.13, pp.266-369, 2010.

K. Hanneman, F. P. Chan, R. S. Mitchell, D. C. Miller, and D. Fleischmann, Pre-and Postoperative Imaging of the Aortic Root, RadioGraphics. janv, vol.36, issue.1, pp.19-37, 2016.

F. Mongeon, F. Marcotte, and D. G. Terrone, Multimodality Noninvasive Imaging of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms: Time to Standardize?, Can J Cardiol. janv, vol.32, issue.1, pp.48-59, 2016.

H. Murillo, M. J. Lane, R. Punn, D. Fleischmann, and C. S. Restrepo, Imaging of the Aorta: Embryology and Anatomy, Semin Ultrasound CT MRI. juin, vol.33, issue.3, pp.169-90, 2012.

H. Kälsch, N. Lehmann, S. Möhlenkamp, A. Becker, S. Moebus et al.,

, Body-surface adjusted aortic reference diameters for improved identification of patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms: Results from the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, Int J Cardiol. févr, vol.163, issue.1, pp.72-80, 2013.

J. Z. Goldfinger, J. L. Halperin, M. L. Marin, A. S. Stewart, K. A. Eagle et al., Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection, J Am Coll Cardiol, vol.64, issue.16, pp.1725-1764, 2014.

F. Y. Lin, R. B. Devereux, M. J. Roman, J. Meng, V. M. Jow et al., Assessment of the thoracic aorta by multidetector computed tomography: Age-and sex-specific reference values in adults without evident cardiovascular disease, J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. sept, vol.2, issue.5, pp.298-308, 2008.

O. Vriz, V. Aboyans, D. 'andrea, A. Ferrara, F. Acri et al., Normal Values of Aortic Root Dimensions in Healthy Adults, Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, vol.114, issue.6, pp.921-928, 2014.

M. Hannuksela, S. Lundqvist, and B. Carlberg, Thoracic aorta -dilated or not?, Scand Cardiovasc J. janv, vol.40, issue.3, pp.175-183, 2006.

E. B. Turkbey, A. Jain, C. Johnson, A. Redheuil, A. E. Arai et al., Determinants and normal values of ascending aortic diameter by age, gender, and race/ethnicity in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA): Ascending Aortic Diameter by MRI, J Magn Reson Imaging. févr, vol.39, issue.2, pp.360-368, 2014.

A. Iskandar and P. D. Thompson, A Meta-Analysis of Aortic Root Size in Elite Athletes, Circulation. 19 févr, vol.127, issue.7, pp.791-799, 2013.

A. E. Davis, A. J. Lewandowski, C. J. Holloway, N. A. Ntusi, R. Banerjee et al., Observational study of regional aortic size referenced to body size: production of a cardiovascular magnetic resonance nomogram, J Cardiovasc Magn Reson, vol.16, issue.1, pp.169-77, 2006.

B. A. Ziganshin and J. A. Elefteriades, Treatment of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm: Role of Earlier Intervention, Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, vol.27, issue.2, pp.135-178, 2015.

S. A. Goldstein, A. Evangelista, S. Abbara, A. Arai, F. M. Asch et al.,

, Multimodality Imaging of Diseases of the Thoracic Aorta in Adults: From the American Society of Echocardiography and the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging, J Am Soc Echocardiogr. févr, vol.28, issue.2, pp.119-82, 2015.

N. M. Bhave, C. A. Nienaber, R. E. Clough, and K. A. Eagle, Multimodality Imaging of Thoracic Aortic Diseases in Adults, JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. juin, vol.11, issue.6, pp.902-921, 2018.

E. A. Fisher, J. A. Stahl, J. H. Budd, and M. E. Goldman, Transesophageal echocardiography: Procedures and clinical application, J Am Coll Cardiol, vol.18, issue.5, pp.1333-1381, 1991.

J. Lichtenberger, D. Franco, J. Kim, and B. Carter, MR Imaging of Thoracic Aortic Disease, Top Magn Reson Imaging. avr, vol.27, issue.2, pp.95-102, 2018.

H. G. Bogren and M. H. Buonocore, Blood flow measurements in the aorta and major arteries with MR velocity mapping, J Magn Reson Imaging JMRI. avr, vol.4, issue.2, pp.119-149, 1994.

Z. Stankovic, B. D. Allen, J. Garcia, K. B. Jarvis, and M. Markl, 4D flow imaging with MRI, Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 15 avr, vol.4, issue.2, pp.173-192, 2014.

J. Lotz, C. Meier, A. Leppert, and M. Galanski, Cardiovascular Flow Measurement with Phase-Contrast MR Imaging: Basic Facts and Implementation, RadioGraphics. mai, vol.22, issue.3, pp.651-71, 2002.

P. Dyverfeldt, M. Bissell, A. J. Barker, A. F. Bolger, C. Carlhäll et al., 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance consensus statement, J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. déc, vol.17, issue.1, p.72, 2015.

M. Markl, A. Frydrychowicz, S. Kozerke, M. Hope, O. Wieben et al., J Magn Reson Imaging, vol.36, issue.5, pp.1015-1051, 2012.

P. Lai, A. Shimakawa, J. Y. Cheng, M. T. Alley, S. Vasanawala et al., Sub-8-minute cardiac four dimensional flow MRI using kat ARC and variable density signal averaging, J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. déc, vol.17, issue.S1, p.36, 2015.

J. Garot, Four-dimensional flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance: Towards accurate flow quantification?, Arch Cardiovasc Dis. avr, vol.112, issue.4, pp.223-228, 2019.

J. Garcia, A. J. Barker, and M. Markl, The Role of Imaging of Flow Patterns by 4D Flow MRI in Aortic Stenosis, JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. févr, vol.12, issue.2, pp.252-66, 2019.

T. Grobner, Gadolinium -a specific trigger for the development of nephrogenic fibrosing dermopathy and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis?, Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1 avr, vol.21, issue.4, pp.1104-1112, 2006.

T. Kanda, Y. Nakai, H. Oba, K. Toyoda, K. Kitajima et al., Gadolinium deposition in the brain, Magn Reson Imaging. déc, vol.34, issue.10, pp.1346-50, 2016.

P. J. Kilner, T. Geva, H. Kaemmerer, P. T. Trindade, J. Schwitter et al., Recommendations for cardiovascular magnetic resonance in adults with congenital heart disease from the respective working groups of the European Society of Cardiology, Eur Heart J. 1 avr, vol.31, issue.7, pp.794-805, 2010.

J. A. Elefteriades and E. A. Farkas, Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm, J Am Coll Cardiol. mars, vol.55, issue.9, pp.841-57, 2010.

J. A. Elefteriades, Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm: Reading the Enemy's Playbook, Curr Probl Cardiol. mai, vol.33, issue.5, pp.203-77, 2008.

C. Olsson, S. Thelin, and E. Stahle, Thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection: Increasing prevalence and improved outcomes reported in a nationwide population-based study of more than 14,000 cases from 1987 to 2002, J Vasc Surg. sept, vol.46, issue.3, 2007.

D. Sur,

J. A. Elefteriades, P. W. Barrett, and G. S. Kopf, Litigation in Nontraumatic Aortic Diseases -A Tempest in the Malpractice Maelstrom, Cardiology, vol.109, issue.4, pp.263-72, 2008.

. Sci-hub, Pathogenesis of Thoracic and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol.1085, issue.1

D. Sur,

E. M. Isselbacher, Thoracic and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Circulation. 15 févr, vol.111, issue.6, pp.816-844, 2005.

D. Guo, S. Hasham, S. Kuang, C. J. Vaughan, E. Boerwinkle et al., Familial Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections: Genetic Heterogeneity With a Major Locus Mapping to 5q13-14, Circulation. 22 mai, vol.103, issue.20, pp.2461-2469, 2001.

G. Albornoz, M. A. Coady, M. Roberts, R. R. Davies, M. Tranquilli et al.,

, Familial Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections-Incidence, Modes of Inheritance, and Phenotypic Patterns, vol.82, pp.1400-1405, 2006.

E. N. Robertson, D. Van-der-linde, A. G. Sherrah, M. P. Vallely, M. Wilson et al., Familial non-syndromal thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections -Incidence and family screening outcomes, Int J Cardiol. oct, vol.220, pp.43-51, 2016.

V. T. Nkomo, M. Enriquez-sarano, N. M. Ammash, L. J. Melton, K. R. Bailey et al., Bicuspid Aortic Valve Associated With Aortic Dilatation: A Community-Based Study, Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. févr, vol.23, issue.2, pp.351-357, 2003.

M. A. Coady, J. A. Rizzo, G. L. Hammond, D. Mandapati, U. Darr et al., What is the appropriate size criterion for resection of thoracic aortic aneurysms?, J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. mars, vol.113, issue.3, pp.476-91, 1997.

K. Cheung, M. Boodhwani, K. Chan, L. Beauchesne, A. Dick et al., Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Growth: Role of Sex and Aneurysm Etiology, J Am Heart Assoc

, Disponible sur, vol.6, 2019.

R. R. Davies, L. J. Goldstein, M. A. Coady, S. L. Tittle, J. A. Rizzo et al., Yearly rupture or dissection rates for thoracic aortic aneurysms: simple prediction based on size, Ann Thorac Surg. janv, vol.73, issue.1, pp.17-28, 2002.

J. A. Elefteriades, Natural history of thoracic aortic aneurysms: indications for surgery, and surgical versus nonsurgical risks, Ann Thorac Surg, vol.74, issue.5, pp.1877-80, 2002.

G. Koullias, R. Modak, M. Tranquilli, D. P. Korkolis, P. Barash et al.,

, Mechanical deterioration underlies malignant behavior of aneurysmal human ascending aorta, J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. sept, vol.130, issue.3, pp.677-678, 2005.

L. A. Pape, T. T. Tsai, E. M. Isselbacher, J. K. Oh, O. Gara et al., Aortic Diameter ?5.5 cm Is Not a Good Predictor of Type A Aortic Dissection: Observations From the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD). Circulation. 4 sept, vol.116, pp.1120-1127, 2007.

, Aortic Size Distribution in the General Population: Explaining the Size Paradox in Aortic Dissection, 2019.

J. Bock, A. Frydrychowicz, A. F. Stalder, T. A. Bley, H. Burkhardt et al., 4D phase contrast MRI at 3 T: Effect of standard and blood-pool contrast agents on SNR, PC-MRA, and blood flow visualization, vol.63, pp.330-338, 2010.

C. J. François, D. P. Lum, K. M. Johnson, B. R. Landgraf, T. A. Bley et al., Renal Arteries: Isotropic, High-Spatial-Resolution, Unenhanced MR Angiography with Threedimensional Radial Phase Contrast, Radiology. janv, vol.258, issue.1, pp.254-60, 2011.

M. S. Krishnam, A. Tomasian, S. Malik, V. Desphande, G. Laub et al., Image quality and diagnostic accuracy of unenhanced SSFP MR angiography compared with conventional contrast-enhanced MR angiography for the assessment of thoracic aortic diseases, Eur Radiol. juin, vol.20, issue.6, pp.1311-1331, 2010.

C. J. François, D. Tuite, V. Deshpande, R. Jerecic, P. Weale et al., Unenhanced MR Angiography of the Thoracic Aorta: Initial Clinical Evaluation, Am J Roentgenol. avr, vol.190, issue.4, pp.902-908, 2008.

M. B. Srichai, S. Kim, A. L. Babb, J. Hecht, and E. M. , Non-Gadolinium-Enhanced 3-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Angiography for the Evaluation of Thoracic Aortic Disease, Tex Heart Inst J, vol.37, issue.1, pp.58-65, 2010.

S. Potthast, L. Mitsumori, L. A. Stanescu, M. L. Richardson, K. Branch et al.,

, Measuring aortic diameter with different MR techniques: Comparison of three-dimensional (3D) navigated steady-state free-precession (SSFP), 3D contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA), 2D T2 black blood, and 2D cine SSFP: Different MR Techniques to Measure Aortic Diameter, J Magn Reson Imaging. janv, vol.31, issue.1, pp.177-84, 2010.

J. C. Carr, O. Simonetti, J. Bundy, D. Li, S. Pereles et al., Cine MR Angiography of the Heart with Segmented True Fast Imaging with Steady-State Precession, Radiology. juin, vol.219, issue.3, pp.828-862, 2001.

E. M. Groves, W. Bireley, K. Dill, T. J. Carroll, and J. C. Carr, Quantitative Analysis of ECG-Gated High-Resolution Contrast-Enhanced MR Angiography of the Thoracic Aorta, Am J Roentgenol. févr, vol.188, issue.2, pp.522-530, 2007.

A. T. Hess, M. M. Bissell, N. Ntusi, A. Lewis, E. M. Tunnicliffe et al.,

. Aortic and . Flow, Quantification of signal-to-noise ratio as a function of field strength and contrast enhancement for 1.5T, 3T, and 7T: Quantification of SNR in Aortic 4D Flow, Magn Reson Med. mai, vol.73, issue.5, pp.1864-71, 2015.

E. Bollache, P. Van-ooij, A. Powell, J. Carr, M. Markl et al., Comparison of 4D flow and 2D velocity-encoded phase contrast MRI sequences for the evaluation of aortic hemodynamics, Int J Cardiovasc Imaging, vol.32, issue.10, pp.1529-1570, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02735168

S. Nordmeyer, E. Riesenkampff, G. Crelier, A. Khasheei, B. Schnackenburg et al., Flow-sensitive four-dimensional cine magnetic resonance imaging for offline blood flow quantification in multiple vessels: A validation study, J Magn Reson Imaging. 27 août, vol.32, issue.3, pp.677-83, 2010.

K. R. O'brien, R. S. Gabriel, A. Greiser, B. R. Cowan, A. A. Young et al., Aortic valve stenotic area calculation from phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance: the importance of short echo time, J Cardiovasc Magn Reson, vol.11, issue.1, p.49, 2009.

M. J. Rose, K. Jarvis, V. Chowdhary, A. J. Barker, B. D. Allen et al., Efficient method for volumetric assessment of peak blood flow velocity using 4D flow MRI: Peak Velocity Assessment With 4D Flow, J Magn Reson Imaging. déc, vol.44, issue.6, pp.1673-82, 2016.

J. Bürk, P. Blanke, Z. Stankovic, A. Barker, M. Russe et al., Evaluation of 3D blood flow patterns and wall shear stress in the normal and dilated thoracic aorta using flowsensitive 4D CMR, J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. déc, vol.14, issue.1, p.84, 2012.

R. Mahadevia, A. J. Barker, S. Schnell, P. Entezari, P. Kansal et al., Bicuspid Aortic Cusp Fusion Morphology Alters Aortic Three-Dimensional Outflow Patterns, Wall Shear Stress, and Expression of Aortopathy, Circulation. 11 févr, vol.129, issue.6, pp.673-82, 2014.

M. M. Bissell, A. T. Hess, L. Biasiolli, S. J. Glaze, M. Loudon et al., Aortic Dilation in Bicuspid Aortic Valve Disease: Flow Pattern Is a Major Contributor and Differs With Valve Fusion Type, Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. juill, vol.6, issue.4, pp.499-507, 2013.

M. D. Hope, M. Sigovan, S. J. Wrenn, D. Saloner, and P. Dyverfeldt, MRI hemodynamic markers of progressive bicuspid aortic valve-related aortic disease: MRI Aortic Hemodynamic Markers, J Magn Reson Imaging. juill, vol.40, issue.1, pp.140-145, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02076412

D. G. Guzzardi, A. J. Barker, P. Van-ooij, S. C. Malaisrie, J. J. Puthumana et al., Valve-Related Hemodynamics Mediate Human Bicuspid Aortopathy, J Am Coll Cardiol. août, vol.66, issue.8, pp.892-900, 2015.

D. Kaiser, M. Freyberg, and P. Friedl, Lack of Hemodynamic Forces Triggers Apoptosis in Vascular Endothelial Cells, Biochem Biophys Res Commun. févr, vol.231, issue.3, pp.586-90, 1997.

J. Geiger, D. Hirtler, K. Gottfried, O. Rahman, E. Bollache et al., Longitudinal Evaluation of Aortic Hemodynamics in Marfan Syndrome: New Insights from a 4D Flow Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Multi-Year Follow-Up Study, J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. déc, vol.19, issue.1, p.33, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02735079

H. Wang, H. Chiu, W. Tseng, and H. Peng, Does altered aortic flow in marfan syndrome relate to aortic root dilatation?: Aortic Flow in Marfan Syndrome, J Magn Reson Imaging. août, vol.44, issue.2, pp.500-508, 2016.

J. Zimmermann, D. Demedts, H. Mirzaee, P. Ewert, H. Stern et al., Wall shear stress estimation in the aorta: Impact of wall motion, spatiotemporal resolution, and phase noise: Wall Motion Impact on WSS, J Magn Reson Imaging. sept, vol.48, issue.3, pp.718-746, 2018.

S. Petersson, P. Dyverfeldt, and T. Ebbers, Assessment of the accuracy of MRI wall shear stress estimation using numerical simulations, J Magn Reson Imaging. juill, vol.36, issue.1, pp.128-166, 2012.

E. Kröner, A. Scholte, P. De-koning, P. J. Van-den-boogaard, L. Kroft et al.,

R. J. Geest, MRI-assessed regional pulse wave velocity for predicting absence of regional aorta luminal growth in marfan syndrome, Int J Cardiol. sept, vol.167, issue.6, pp.2977-82, 2013.

M. Markl, W. Wallis, S. Brendecke, J. Simon, A. Frydrychowicz et al., Estimation of global aortic pulse wave velocity by flow-sensitive 4D MRI, Magn Reson Med. 23 avr, vol.63, issue.6, pp.1575-82, 2010.

V. M. Pereira, B. Delattre, O. Brina, P. Bouillot, and M. I. Vargas, 4D Flow MRI in Neuroradiology: Techniques and Applications, vol.25, pp.81-88, 2016.