. .. Conclusion,

. .. Références,

. .. Annexes,

. .. -bdi, Annexe 2

C. .. , Annexe

. .. Annexe-4--rrrs, , vol.56, p.6

N. Chidiac, L. Crocq, and . Le-psychotrauma, Stress et trauma. Considérations historiques

, Ann Méd-Psychol Rev Psychiatr, vol.168, pp.311-320, 2010.

L. Crocq, Traumatismes psychiques de guerre (Les), 1999.

L. Crocq, Traumatismes psychiques: prise en charge psychologique des victimes

, Association AP. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5®)

, American Psychiatric Pub, 2013.

, ISTSS -What Is Traumatic Stress? n.d, 2020.

H. G. Koenig, N. A. Youssef, and M. Pearce, Assessment of Moral Injury in Veterans and Active Duty Military Personnel With PTSD: A, Review. Front Psychiatry, vol.10, p.443, 2019.

B. Durodiã, Terrorism and post-traumatic stress disorder: a historical review, vol.6, p.12, 2019.

A. E. Jolly, . De, . Post-traumatique-:-une-revue, and . De-la-litterature-epidemiologique-n.d, , p.19

Y. Lecrubier, Posttraumatic stress disorder in primary care: a hidden diagnosis, J Clin Psychiatry, vol.65, issue.1, pp.49-54, 2004.

G. Vaiva, L. Jehel, O. Cottencin, F. Ducrocq, C. Duchet et al., Prévalence des troubles psychotraumatiques en France métropolitaine, L'Encéphale, vol.34, pp.577-83, 2008.

D. L. Segal, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR)

, Corsini Encycl Psychol, vol.2010, pp.1-3

L. Atwoli, D. J. Stein, K. C. Koenen, and K. A. Mclaughlin, Epidemiology of posttraumatic stress disorder: prevalence, correlates and consequences, Curr Opin Psychiatry, vol.28, pp.307-318, 2015.

S. E. Bruce, R. B. Weisberg, R. T. Dolan, J. T. Machan, R. C. Kessler et al., Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Primary Care Patients, Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry, vol.03, pp.211-218, 2001.

T. Esemed, /. Mhedea-;-investigators, *. , A. J. Angermeyer, M. C. Bernert et al., Prevalence of mental disorders in Europe: results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD) project, Acta Psychiatr Scand, vol.109, pp.21-28, 2000.

, VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Acute Stress Disorder, 0200.

R. C. Kessler, W. T. Chiu, O. Demler, and E. E. Walters, Prevalence, Severity, and Comorbidity of 12-Month DSM-IV Disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, ARCH GEN PSYCHIATRY, vol.62, p.11, 2005.

B. A. Hermann, B. Shiner, and M. J. Friedman, Epidemiology and prevention of combatrelated post-traumatic stress in OEF/OIF/OND service members, Mil Med, vol.177, pp.1-6, 2012.

M. Panagioti, P. Gooding, and N. Tarrier, Post-traumatic stress disorder and suicidal behavior: A narrative review, Clin Psychol Rev, vol.29, pp.471-82, 2009.

U. Hapke, A. Broda, H. Rumpf, U. John, and C. Meyer, Post-traumatic stress disorder -The role of trauma, pre-existing psychiatric disorders, and gender, Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, vol.256, pp.299-306, 2006.

O. Frans, P. Rimmo, L. Aberg, and M. Fredrikson, Trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder in the general population, Acta Psychiatr Scand, vol.111, pp.291-290, 2005.

C. R. Brewin, B. Andrews, and J. D. Valentine, Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed adults, J Consult Clin Psychol, vol.68, pp.748-66, 2000.

, Dissociative symptoms in media eyewitnesses of an execution, Am J Psychiatry, vol.151, pp.1335-1344, 1994.

, Dissociative reactions to the San Francisco Bay Area earthquake of 1989, Am J Psychiatry, vol.150, pp.474-482, 1993.

N. Breslau, R. C. Kessler, H. D. Chilcoat, L. R. Schultz, G. C. Davis et al., Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the Community: The 1996 Detroit Area Survey of Trauma, Arch Gen Psychiatry, vol.55, p.626, 1998.

R. C. Kessler, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey, Arch Gen Psychiatry, vol.52, p.1048, 1995.

D. F. Tolin and E. B. Foa, Sex differences in trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder: A quantitative review of 25 years of research, Psychol Bull, vol.132, pp.959-92, 2006.

D. S. Weiss, J. A. Fairbank, B. K. Jordan, R. L. Hough, and R. A. Kulka, The prevalence of lifetime and partial post-traumatic stress disorder in Vietnam theater veterans n, p.12

M. Martin, Facteurs prévisionnels du développement de l'état de stress posttraumatique à la suite d'un événement traumatique chez les policiers n, p.347

D. Traber, Comment prevenir le trouble de stress post traumatique? Reflexion et application chez les professionnels à risques de la région, p.339

O. M. De-la-santé, CIM-10/ICD-10 Classification internationale des troubles mentaux et des troubles du comportement: critères diagnostiques pour la recherche, 2000.

J. A. Talbott, Acute Stress Disorder as a Predictor of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review, Yearb Psychiatry Appl Ment Health, vol.2012, pp.235-241, 2012.

T. Lundin, The treatment of acute trauma. Post-traumatic stress disorder prevention, Psychiatr Clin North Am, vol.17, pp.385-91, 1994.

C. A. Blevins, F. W. Weathers, M. T. Davis, T. K. Witte, and J. L. Domino, The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5): Development and Initial Psychometric Evaluation: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5, J Trauma Stress, vol.28, pp.489-98, 2015.

, PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) -PTSD: National Center for PTSD n, 2020.

A. R. Ashbaugh, S. Houle-johnson, C. Herbert, W. El-hage, and A. Brunet, Psychometric Validation of the English and French Versions of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), PLOS ONE, vol.11, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02524236

M. J. Bovin, B. P. Marx, F. W. Weathers, M. W. Gallagher, P. Rodriguez et al., Psychometric properties of the PTSD Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (PCL-5) in veterans, Psychol Assess, vol.28, pp.1379-91, 2016.

M. Charney, S. Hellberg, E. Bui, and N. Simon, Evidenced-Based Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Updated Review of Validated Psychotherapeutic and Pharmacological Approaches, Harv Rev Psychiatry, vol.26, pp.99-115, 2018.

, ALD n° 23 -Troubles dépressifs récurrents ou persistants de l'adulte, 2020.

J. R. Davidson, Recognition and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder, JAMA, vol.286, pp.584-592, 2001.

J. I. Bisson, P. L. Jenkins, J. Alexander, and C. Bannister, Randomised controlled trial of psychological debriefing for victims of acute burn trauma, Br J Psychiatry, vol.171, pp.78-81, 1997.

R. A. Mayou, A. Ehlers, and M. Hobbs, Psychological debriefing for road traffic accident victims. Three-year follow-up of a randomised controlled trial, Br J Psychiatry J Ment Sci, vol.176, pp.589-93, 2000.

M. Hoskins, J. Pearce, A. Bethell, L. Dankova, C. Barbui et al., Pharmacotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: Systematic review and meta-analysis, Br J Psychiatry, vol.206, pp.93-100, 2015.

J. Guina, S. R. Rossetter, B. J. Derhodes, R. W. Nahhas, and R. S. Welton, Benzodiazepines for PTSD: A Systematic Review and Meta, Analysis, vol.21, p.23, 2015.

B. V. Watts, P. P. Schnurr, L. Mayo, Y. Young-xu, W. B. Weeks et al., Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, J Clin Psychiatry, vol.74, pp.541-50, 2013.

N. Tarrier and L. Gregg, Suicide risk in civilian PTSD patients: Predictors of suicidal ideation, planning and attempts, Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, vol.39, pp.655-61, 2004.

T. Freeman, V. Roca, and W. Moore, A Comparison of Chronic Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Patients with and without a History of Suicide Attempt

, J Nerv Ment Dis, vol.188, pp.460-463, 2000.

J. L. Gradus, P. Qin, A. K. Lincoln, M. Miller, E. Lawler et al., Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Completed Suicide, Am J Epidemiol, vol.171, pp.721-728, 2010.

M. Bernal, J. M. Haro, S. Bernert, T. Brugha, R. De-graaf et al., Risk factors for suicidality in Europe: Results from the ESEMED study, J Affect Disord, vol.101, pp.27-34, 2007.

J. L. Gradus, M. K. Suvak, B. E. Wisco, B. P. Marx, P. A. Resick et al., Research Article: PTSD Treatment Reduces Suicidal Ideation, 2013.

M. Ferrada-noli, M. Asberg, K. Ormstad, T. Lundin, and E. Sundbom, Suicidal behavior after severe trauma. Part 1: PTSD diagnoses, psychiatric comorbidity, and assessments of suicidal behavior, J Trauma Stress, vol.11, pp.103-115, 1998.

, After Combat, Victims of an Inner War -The New York Times n, 2020.

C. Bolton, P. Gooding, N. Kapur, C. Barrowclough, and N. Tarrier, Developing psychological perspectives of suicidal behaviour and risk in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia: We know they kill themselves but do we understand why?, Clin Psychol Rev, vol.27, pp.511-547, 2007.

R. L. Spitzer, J. Endicott, and E. Robins, Clinical criteria for psychiatric diagnosis and DSM-III, Am J Psychiatry, vol.132, pp.1187-92, 1975.

R. Yehuda, C. W. Hoge, A. C. Mcfarlane, E. Vermetten, R. A. Lanius et al., Post-traumatic stress disorder, Nat Rev Dis Primer, vol.1, p.15057, 2015.

T. B. Gehrt, D. Berntsen, R. H. Hoyle, and D. C. Rubin, Psychological and clinical correlates of the Centrality of Event Scale: A systematic review, Clin Psychol Rev, vol.65, pp.57-80, 2018.

É. Durkheim, Le suicide: étude de sociologie. Alcan, p.1897

D. Leo, D. Burgis, S. Bertolote, J. M. Kerkhof, and A. , Bille-Brahe U. Definitions of Suicidal Behavior: Lessons Learned from the WHO/EURO Multicentre Study, Crisis, vol.27, pp.4-15, 2006.

. Définitions, , 2020.

J. Bertolote and A. Fleischmann, Suicidal behavior prevention: WHO perspectives on research, Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet, vol.133, pp.8-12, 2005.

M. C. O'rourke, R. T. Jamil, and W. Siddiqui, Suicide Screening and Prevention, 2020.

, Suicides et tentatives de suicide en France, 2006.

I. H. Stanley, J. W. Boffa, and T. E. Joiner, PTSD From a Suicide Attempt: Phenomenological and Diagnostic Considerations, Psychiatry, vol.82, pp.57-71, 2019.

. Oms-|-données, , 2020.

, Suicide et tentative de suicides : données nationales et régionales n.d. /liste-desactualites/suicide-et-tentative-de-suicides-donnees-nationales-et-regionales, 2020.

, Taux de suicide par sexe France, 2014.

M. M. Large, The role of prediction in suicide prevention, Dialogues Clin Neurosci, vol.20, pp.197-205, 2018.

J. C. Franklin, J. D. Ribeiro, K. R. Fox, K. H. Bentley, E. M. Kleiman et al., Risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors: A meta-analysis of 50 years of research, Psychol Bull, vol.143, pp.187-232, 2017.

J. M. Bostwick, C. Pabbati, J. R. Geske, and A. J. Mckean, Suicide Attempt as a Risk Factor for Completed Suicide: Even More Lethal Than We Knew, Am J Psychiatry, vol.173, pp.1094-100, 2016.

K. Mcclatchey, J. Murray, A. Rowat, and Z. Chouliara, Protective Factors of Suicide and Suicidal Behavior Relevant to Emergency Healthcare Settings: A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis of Post-2007 Reviews, Arch Suicide Res, vol.23, pp.1-32, 2018.

T. Zortea, C. Gray, O. Connor, and R. , The Relationship Between Adult Attachment and Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors: A Systematic Review, Arch Suicide Res, vol.2019, pp.1-36

, La crise suicidaire : reconnaître et prendre en charge, 2020.

L. Tondo, J. Hennen, and R. J. Baldessarini, Lower suicide risk with long-term lithium treatment in major affective illness: a meta-analysis, Acta Psychiatr Scand, vol.104, pp.163-72, 2001.

J. Hennen and R. Baldessarini, Suicidal risk during treatment with clozapine: A metaanalysis, Schizophr Res, vol.73, pp.139-184, 2005.

S. T. Wilkinson, E. D. Ballard, M. H. Bloch, S. J. Mathew, J. W. Murrough et al., The Effect of a Single Dose of Intravenous Ketamine on Suicidal Ideation: A Systematic Review and Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis, Am J Psychiatry, vol.175, pp.150-158, 2018.

T. J. Dodds, Prescribed Benzodiazepines and Suicide Risk: A Review of the Literature, Prim Care Companion CNS Disord, vol.19, 2017.

S. Duhem, S. Dambry, E. Marchand, A. Creton, C. Debien et al., « Premières analyses de mortalité par suicide en Nord-Pas-de-Calais depuis l'implantation de VigilanS

. L'encéphale, , vol.45, 2018.

V. Jardon, C. Debien, S. Duhem, M. Morgiève, F. Ducrocq et al., Un exemple de système de veille post-hospitalière des suicidants, VigilanS. L'Encéphale, vol.45, 2018.

F. E. Crumley, Suicide and stress, Hosp Community Psychiatry, vol.38, pp.202-202, 1987.

F. E. Crumley, PTSD and suicide attempts by adolescents, Am J Psychiatry, vol.146, p.558, 1989.

L. R. Wulsin and L. Goldman, Post-traumatic stress disorder following a suicide attempt n.d, p.5

B. Bill, L. Ipsch, S. Lucae, P. Hi, M. Maragkos et al., Attempted Suicide Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Depression -An Exploratory

I. H. Stanley, M. A. Hom, J. W. Boffa, D. L. Stage, and T. E. Joiner, PTSD from a suicide attempt: An empirical investigation among suicide attempt survivors, J Clin Psychol, vol.75, pp.1879-95, 2019.

L. Collet and J. Cottraux, Inventaire abrégé de la dépression de Beck (13 items): Étude de la validité concurrente avec les échelles de Hamilton et de ralentissement de Widlöcher. / The shortened Beck Depression Inventory: Study of the concurrent validity with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Widlöcher retardation Rating Scale, Encéphale Rev Psychiatr Clin Biol Thérapeutique, vol.12, pp.77-86, 1970.

K. Bush, The AUDIT Alcohol Consumption Questions (AUDIT-C)An Effective Brief Screening Test for Problem Drinking, Arch Intern Med, vol.158, p.1789, 1998.

J. B. Saunders, O. G. Aasland, T. F. Babor, J. R. De-la-fuente, and M. Grant, Development of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT): WHO Collaborative Project on Early Detection of Persons with Harmful Alcohol Consumption-II, Addiction, vol.88, pp.791-804, 1993.

K. A. Bradley, A. F. Debenedetti, R. J. Volk, E. C. Williams, D. Frank et al., AUDIT-C as a Brief Screen for Alcohol Misuse in Primary Care, Alcohol Clin Exp Res, vol.31, pp.1208-1225, 2007.

D. A. Dawson, B. F. Grant, F. S. Stinson, and Y. Zhou, Effectiveness of the Derived Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) in Screening for Alcohol Use Disorders and Risk Drinking in the US General Population, Alcohol Clin Exp Res, vol.29, pp.844-54, 2005.

H. Misson, F. Mathieu, F. Jollant, Y. L. Guillaume, S. Parmentier et al., Factor analyses of the Suicidal Intent Scale (SIS) and the Risk-Rescue Rating Scale (RRRS): Toward the identification of homogeneous subgroups of suicidal behaviors, J Affect Disord, vol.121, pp.80-87, 2010.

, Observatoire national du suicide (ONS) -Ministère des Solidarités et de la Santé n, 2020.

, Noyade, asphyxie, strangulation 3. Saut, tir 2. Conscience altérée 1. Aucun élément de preuve 2. Confusion, semi-coma 3. Coma

/. Lésions and . Toxicité,

. Bonne,

, Traitement requis 1. Hospitalisation aux urgences

. Élevé-modéré,

. Modéré,

, Non familier, non distant 1. A distance

, Personne initiant le sauvetage 3. Personne clé, familière 2, vol.1

, Modéré (10-11 points de sauvetage)

, Élevé modéré (12-13 points de sauvetage)

, Sauvetage élevé (14-15 points de sauvetage)