, INSEE. D'ici 2050, la population augmenterait dans toutes les régions de métropole -Insee Première -1652 . 2017. Disponible à l'URL

, Directive 93/42/CEE du Conseil du 14 juin 1993 relative aux dispositifs médicaux, 1993.

, Directive du conseil du 20 juin 1990 concernant le rapprochement des législations des états membres relatives aux dispositifs médicaux implantables actifs (90/385/CEE), 1990.

, Données nationales du PMSI MCO, 2019.

F. Guillemin, A. C. Rat, B. Mazieres, J. Pouchot, B. Fautrel et al.,

, Épidémiologie des prothèses de hanche en France : analyse de la base nationale du PMSI de, Osteoarthr Cartil, vol.103, issue.11, pp.1314-1336, 2008.

M. P. Abdel, . Roth-p-von, W. S. Harmsen, and D. J. Berry, What is the lifetime risk of revision for patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty?, Bone Joint J, vol.98, issue.11, pp.1436-1476, 2016.

T. J. Liang, M. Z. You, and P. F. Xing, Uncemented total hip arthroplasty in patients younger than 50 years: a 6-to 10-year follow-up study, Orthop, vol.33, 2010.

R. L. Drake, A. W. Vogl, and A. Mitchell, Fabrice Duparc JD. Gray's Anatomie pour les étudiants, 2015.

, Eléments concourant à la décision d'arthroplastie du genou et du choix de la prothèse, Serv évaluation des Dispos, 2013.

D. H. Burdin, Reprises de prothèses totales du genou. Cah d'enseignement la SOFCOT, vol.84, 2003.

J. T. Evans, R. W. Walker, J. P. Evans, A. W. Blom, A. Sayers et al., How long does a knee replacement last? A systematic review and meta-analysis of case series and national registry reports with more than 15 years of follow-up, Lancet, vol.393, pp.655-63, 2019.

, HAS. Implants articulaires d'épaule. Produit, 2014.

, The Norwegian Arthroplasty Register. Norwegian Arthroplasty Register report, 2010.

P. Raiss, T. Bruckner, M. Rickert, and G. Walch, Longitudinal Observational Study of Total Shoulder Replacements with Cement, J Bone Jt Surg, vol.96, issue.3, pp.198-205, 2014.

A. Lädermann, P. J. Denard, and C. P. , Massive rotator cuff tears: definition and treatment, Int Orthop, vol.39, issue.12, pp.2403-2417, 2015.

A. Lädermann, P. J. Denard, and P. Boileau, International Orthopaedics (SICOT), p.2205, 2015.

G. Bacle, L. Nové-josserand, P. Garaud, and G. Walch, Long-Term Outcomes of Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty, J Bone Jt Surg, vol.99, issue.6, pp.454-61, 2017.

K. D. Kühn, Up-to-date comparison of physical and chemical properties of commercial materials, 2000.

M. T. Houdek, K. E. Greenwood-quaintance, M. E. Morrey, R. Patel, and A. D. Hanssen, Elution of High Dose Amphotericin B Deoxycholate From Polymethylmethacrylate, J Arthroplasty, vol.30, issue.12, pp.2308-2318, 2015.

M. W. Squire, B. J. Ludwig, J. R. Thompson, J. Jagodzinski, D. Hall et al., Premixed Antibiotic Bone Cement: An In Vitro Comparison of Antimicrobial Efficacy, J Arthroplasty, vol.23, issue.6, pp.110-114, 2008.

, Evaluation des ciments avec ou sans antibiotiques pour la fixation des implants articulaires, HAS, 2016.

J. Zhang, X. Y. Zhang, F. L. Jiang, Y. P. Wu, B. B. Yang et al., Antibiotic-impregnated bone cement for preventing infection in patients receiving primary total hip and knee arthroplasty: A meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore), vol.98, p.18068, 2019.

D. Iarikov, H. Demian, D. Rubin, J. Alexander, and S. Nambiar, Choice and Doses of Antibacterial Agents for Cement Spacers in Treatment of Prosthetic Joint Infections: Review of Published Studies, Clin Infect Dis, vol.55, issue.11, pp.1474-80, 2012.

T. J. Menge, J. R. Koethe, C. A. Jenkins, P. W. Wright, A. A. Shinar et al., Acute Kidney Injury After Placement of an Antibiotic-Impregnated Cement Spacer During Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty, J Arthroplasty, vol.27, issue.6, pp.1221-1227, 2012.

A. Luu, F. Syed, G. Raman, A. Bhalla, E. Muldoon et al., Two-Stage Arthroplasty for Prosthetic Joint Infection: A Systematic Review of Acute Kidney Injury, Systemic Toxicity and Infection Control, J Arthroplasty, vol.28, issue.9, pp.1490-1498, 2013.

D. Neut, H. Van-de-belt, I. Stokroos, J. R. Van-horn, H. C. Van-der-mei et al.,

, Biomaterial-associated infection of gentamicin-loaded PMMA beads in orthopaedic revision surgery, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol.47, issue.6, pp.885-91, 2001.

E. N. Hansen, B. Adeli, R. Kenyon, and J. Parvizi, Routine Use of Antibiotic Laden Bone Cement for Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty: Impact on Infecting Microbial Patterns and Resistance Profiles, J Arthroplasty, vol.29, issue.6, pp.1123-1130, 2014.

D. F. Williams, Définitions in biomaterials, European Society of Biomaterials, vol.4, 1986.

H. A. Demos, C. H. Rorabeck, R. B. Bourne, S. J. Macdonald, and . Mr, Instability in primary total hip arthroplasty with the direct lateral approach, Clin Orthop, pp.168-80, 2001.

M. A. Crowther and B. Burnand, Symptomatic In-Hospital Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism Following Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Among Patients, Jama, vol.307, issue.3, pp.294-303, 2014.

T. P. Schmalzried, S. Noordin, and H. Amstutz, Update on nerve palsy associated with total hip replacement, Clin Orthop Relat Res, vol.344, pp.188-206, 1997.

M. A. Zumstein, M. Pinedo, J. Old, and P. Boileau, Problems, complications, reoperations, and revisions in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: A systematic review, J Shoulder Elb Surg, vol.20, issue.1, pp.146-57, 2011.

A. Kobayashi, M. A. Freeman, W. Bonfield, Y. Kadoya, and T. Yamac, Number of polyethylene particles and osteolysis in total joint replacements. A quantitative study using a tissue-digestion method, J Bone Jt Surg Br, vol.79, pp.844-852, 1997.

P. Drees, A. Eckardt, R. E. Gay, S. Gay, and L. C. Huber, Mechanisms of disease: Molecular insights into aseptic loosening of orthopedic implants, Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol, vol.3, issue.3, pp.165-71, 2007.

E. M. Schwarz, J. Parvizi, T. Gehrke, A. Aiyer, A. Battenberg et al., International Consensus Meeting on Musculoskeletal Infection: Research Priorities from the General Assembly Questions, J Orthop Res, vol.37, issue.5, pp.997-1006, 2018.

W. Zimmerli, A. Trampuz, and P. E. Ochsner, , pp.1645-54, 2004.

L. Grammatico-guillon, S. Baron, P. Rosset, C. Gaborit, L. Bernard et al., Surgical site infection after primary hip and knee arthroplasty: A cohort study using a hospital database, Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, vol.36, issue.10, pp.1198-207, 2015.

A. I. Alford, K. M. Kozloff, and K. D. Hankenson, Extracellular matrix networks in bone remodeling, Int J Biochem Cell Biol, vol.65, pp.20-31, 2015.

J. E. Compston, Bone marrow and bone: A functional unit, J Endocrinol, vol.173, issue.3, pp.387-94, 2002.

S. L. Dallas and L. F. Bonewald, Dynamics of the transition from osteoblast to osteocyte, Ann N Y Acad Sci, vol.1192, pp.437-480, 2010.

K. A. Tucker, S. S. Reilly, C. S. Leslie, and M. C. Hudson, Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus induces apoptosis in mouse osteoblasts, FEMS Microbiol Lett, vol.186, issue.2, pp.151-157, 2000.

Q. Chen, T. Hou, F. Luo, X. Wu, Z. Xie et al., Involvement of Toll-Like Receptor 2 and Pro-Apoptotic Signaling Pathways in Bone Remodeling in Osteomyelitis, Cell Physiol Biochem, vol.34, issue.6, pp.1890-900, 2014.

T. Claro, A. Widaa, M. O'seaghdha, H. Miajlovic, T. J. Foster et al., Staphylococcus aureus Protein A Binds to Osteoblasts and Triggers Signals That Weaken Bone in Osteomyelitis, PLoS One, vol.6, issue.4, p.18748, 2011.

T. Jin, J. Li, J. Shi, X. He, and J. Ding, Staphylococcal Protein A, Panton-Valentine Leukocidin and Coagulase Aggravate the Bone Loss and Bone Destruction in Osteomyelitis, Cell Physiol Biochem, vol.32, issue.2, pp.322-355, 2013.

A. Widaa, T. Claro, T. J. Foster, F. J. O'brien, and S. W. Kerrigan, Staphylococcus aureus protein A plays a critical role in mediating bone destruction and bone loss in osteomyelitis, vol.7, pp.40586-40586

J. Rasigade, S. Trouillet-assant, and F. Laurent, Infections ostéo-articulaires à staphylocoques, Rev Francoph des Lab, vol.2016, issue.480, pp.33-40, 2016.

W. J. Boyle, W. S. Simonet, and D. L. Lacey, Osteoclast differentiation and activation, Nature [Internet], vol.423, issue.6937, pp.337-379, 2003.

S. N. Somayaji, S. Ritchie, M. Sahraei, I. Marriott, and M. C. Hudson, Staphylococcus aureus induces expression of receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand and prostaglandin E2 in infected murine osteoblasts, Infect Immun, vol.76, issue.11, pp.5120-5126, 2008.

J. Kim, J. Yang, O. Park, S. Kang, W. Kim et al., Lipoproteins are an important bacterial component responsible for bone destruction through the induction of osteoclast differentiation and activation, J Bone Miner Res, vol.28, issue.11, pp.2381-91, 2013.

Y. H. An, R. B. Dickinson, and R. J. Doyle, Mechanisms of Bacterial Adhesion and Pathogenesis of Implant and Tissue Infections BT -Handbook of Bacterial Adhesion: Principles, Methods, and Applications, pp.1-27, 2000.

M. Hussain, M. H. Wilcox, and P. J. White, The slime of coagulase-negative staphylococci: Biochemistry and relation to adherence, FEMS Microbiol Rev, vol.10, issue.3-4, pp.191-208, 1993.

S. B. Goodman, E. Gibon, and Z. Yao, The basic science of periprosthetic osteolysis, Instr Course Lect, vol.62, pp.201-207, 2013.

B. Fischer, P. Vaudaux, M. Magnin, E. Mestikawy, Y. Proctor et al., Novel animal model for studying the molecular mechanisms of bacterial adhesion to boneimplanted metallic devices: Role of fibronectin in Staphylococcus aureus adhesion, J Orthop Res, vol.14, issue.6, pp.914-934, 1996.

L. Bernard, P. Vaudaux, M. C. Stern, R. Huggler, E. Lew et al., The inhibition of neutrophil antibacterial activity by ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene particles, Biomaterials, vol.26, issue.27, pp.5552-5559, 2005.

W. Zimmerli, P. D. Lew, and F. A. Waldvogel, Pathogenesis of foreign body infection. Evidence for a local granulocyte defect, J Clin Invest, vol.73, issue.4, pp.1191-200, 1984.

T. Ferry, T. Perpoint, F. Vandenesch, and E. J. , Virulence determinants in Staphylococcus aureus and their involvement in clinical syndromes, Curr Infect Dis Rep, vol.7, issue.6, pp.420-428, 2005.

T. Claro, A. Widaa, C. Mcdonnell, T. J. Foster, F. J. O'brien et al., Staphylococcus aureus protein A binding to osteoblast tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 results in activation of nuclear factor kappa B and release of interleukin-6 in bone infection, Microbiology, vol.159, issue.1, pp.147-54, 2013.

L. R. Rodrigues, Inhibition of Bacterial Adhesion on Medical Devices BT -Bacterial Adhesion: Chemistry, Biology and Physics, pp.351-67, 2011.

B. Löffler, L. Tuchscherr, S. Niemann, and G. Peters, Staphylococcus aureus persistence in non-professional phagocytes, Int J Med Microbiol, vol.304, issue.2, pp.170-176, 2014.

B. C. Kahl, M. Goulian, W. Van-wamel, M. Herrmann, S. M. Simon et al., Staphylococcus aureus RN6390 replicates and induces apoptosis in a pulmonary epithelial cell line, Infect Immun, vol.68, issue.9, pp.5385-92, 2000.

B. E. Menzies and I. Kourteva, Internalization of Staphylococcus aureus by endothelial cells induces apoptosis. Infect Immun, vol.66, pp.5994-6002, 1998.

M. C. Hudson, W. K. Ramp, N. C. Nicholson, A. S. Williams, and M. T. Nousiainen, Internalization ofStaphylococcus aureusby cultured osteoblasts, Microb Pathog, vol.19, issue.6, pp.409-428, 1995.

S. S. Reilly, M. C. Hudson, J. F. Kellam, and W. K. Ramp, In vivo internalization of Staphylococcus aureus by embryonic chick osteoblasts, Bone, vol.26, issue.1, pp.63-70, 2000.

J. Josse, F. Velard, and S. C. Gangloff, Staphylococcus aureus vs. Osteoblast: Relationship and Consequences in Osteomyelitis. Front Cell Infect Microbiol, vol.5, p.85, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02163998

T. J. Marrie, J. Nelligan, and J. W. Costerton, A scanning and transmission electron microscopic study of an infected endocardial pacemaker lead. Circulation, vol.66, pp.1339-1380, 1982.

N. Benito, I. Mur, A. Ribera, A. Soriano, D. Rodríguez-pardo et al., The Different Microbial Etiology of Prosthetic Joint Infections according to Route of Acquisition and Time after Prosthesis Implantation, Including the Role of Multidrug-Resistant Organisms, J Clin Med, vol.8, issue.5, p.673, 2019.

B. E. Ramey, M. Koutsoudis, S. B. Bodman, . Von, and C. Fuqua, Biofilm formation in plantmicrobe associations, Curr Opin Microbiol, vol.7, issue.6, pp.602-611, 2004.

J. W. Costerton, P. S. Stewart, and E. P. Greenberg, Bacterial Biofilms: A Common Cause of Persistent Infections, Science, vol.284, issue.5418, pp.1318-1340, 1999.

D. Lebeaux and J. Ghigo, Infections associées aux biofilms Quelles perspectives thérapeutiques, Médecine/Sciences, vol.28, pp.727-766, 2012.

I. Williams, W. A. Venables, D. Lloyd, F. Paul, and I. Critchley, The effects of adherence to silicone surfaces on antibiotic susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus, Microbiology, vol.143, issue.7, pp.2407-2420, 1997.

D. Davies, Understanding biofilm resistance to antibacterial agents, Nat Rev Drug Discov, vol.2, issue.2, pp.114-136, 2003.

K. Lewis, Persister cells, dormancy and infectious disease, Nat Rev Microbiol, vol.5, issue.1, pp.48-56, 2007.

T. Mah, B. Pitts, B. Pellock, G. C. Walker, P. S. Stewart et al., A genetic basis for Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm antibiotic resistance, Nature, vol.426, issue.6964, pp.306-316, 2003.

B. P. Conlon, S. E. Rowe, A. B. Gandt, A. S. Nuxoll, N. P. Donegan et al., Persister formation in Staphylococcus aureus is associated with ATP depletion, Nat Microbiol, vol.1, issue.5, p.16051, 2016.

D. Shah, Z. Zhang, A. Khodursky, N. Kaldalu, K. Kurg et al., Persisters: a distinct physiological state of E. coli, BMC Microbiol, vol.6, p.53, 2006.

P. K. Edwards, S. C. Mears, J. B. Stambough, S. E. Foster, and C. L. Barnes, Choices, Compromises, and Controversies in Total Knee and Total Hip Arthroplasty Modifiable Risk Factors: What You Need to Know, J Arthroplasty, vol.33, issue.10, pp.3101-3107, 2018.

A. Eka and A. F. Chen, Patient-related medical risk factors for periprosthetic joint infection of the hip and knee, Ann Transl Med, vol.3, issue.16, 2015.

K. Lai, E. R. Bohm, C. Burnell, and D. R. Hedden, Presence of Medical Comorbidities in Patients With Infected Primary Hip or Knee Arthroplasties, J Arthroplasty, vol.22, issue.5, pp.651-657, 2007.

K. Bozic, E. Lau, S. Kurtz, K. Ong, H. Rubash et al., Patient-related risk factors for periprosthetic joint infection and postoperative mortality following total hip arthroplasty in Medicare patients, J Bone Jt Surg Am, vol.94, issue.9, pp.794-800, 2012.

E. J. Mcpherson, C. Woodson, and . Hp, Periprosthetic total hip infection: outcomes using a staging system, Clin Orthop Relat Res, vol.403, pp.8-15, 2002.

H. Segawa, D. T. Tsukayama, R. F. Kyle, D. A. Becker, and . Gr, Infection after total knee arthroplasty. A retrospective study of the treatment of eighty-one infections, J Bone Jt Surg Am

D. Tsukayama, R. Estrada, and . Gr, Infection after total hip arthroplasty. A study of the treatment of one hundred and six infections, J Bone Jt Surg Am, vol.78, issue.4, pp.512-535, 1996.

P. Bémer, C. Plouzeau, D. Tande, J. Léger, B. Giraudeau et al., Evaluation of 16S rRNA gene PCR sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection: A prospective multicenter cross-sectional study, J Clin Microbiol, vol.52, issue.10, pp.3583-3592, 2014.

V. Zeller, A. Ghorbani, C. Strady, P. Leonard, P. Mamoudy et al., Propionibacterium acnes: An agent of prosthetic joint infection and colonization, J Infect, vol.55, issue.2, pp.119-143, 2007.

M. Fernandez-sampedro, K. E. Piper, A. Mcdowell, S. Patrick, J. N. Mandrekar et al., Species of Propionibacterium and Propionibacterium acnes phylotypes associated with orthopedic implants, Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, vol.64, issue.2, pp.138-183, 2009.

A. J. Tande and R. Patel, Prosthetic Joint Infection, Clin Microbiol Rev, vol.27, issue.2, pp.302-347, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02744942

H. Dutronc, F. A. Dauchy, C. Cazanave, C. Rougie, S. Lafarie-castet et al., Candida prosthetic infections: Case series and literature review, Scand J Infect Dis, vol.42, pp.890-895, 2010.

. Spilf, Infections osteo-articulaires sur materiel (prothese, implant, osteo-synthese), Médecine Mal Infect, vol.39, issue.11, pp.815-63, 2009.

J. Parvizi, T. L. Tan, K. Goswami, C. Higuera, D. Valle et al., Definition of Periprosthetic Hip and Knee Infection: An Evidence-Based and Validated Criteria, J Arthroplasty, vol.33, issue.5, pp.1309-1314, 2018.

H. Autorité-de-santé, Prothèse de hanche ou de genou : diagnostic et prise en charge de l'infection dans le mois suivant l'implantation, pp.1-134, 2014.

S. Tigges, R. G. Stiles, and J. R. Roberson, Appearance of septic hip prostheses on plain radiographs, Am J Roentgenol, vol.163, issue.2, pp.377-80, 1994.

, Collège des universitaires de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales. ECN Pilly, 2018.

D. D. Robertson, D. Magid, R. Poss, E. K. Fishman, A. F. Brooker et al., Enhanced computed tomographic techniques for the evaluation of total hip arthroplasty, J Arthroplasty, vol.4, issue.3, pp.271-277, 1989.

C. Cyteval, V. Hamm, M. P. Sarrabère, F. M. Lopez, P. Maury et al., Painful Infection at the Site of Hip Prosthesis: CT Imaging, Radiology, vol.224, issue.2, pp.477-83, 2002.

A. H. Elgazzar, H. M. Abdel-dayem, J. D. Clark, and H. R. Maxon, Multimodality imaging of osteomyelitis, Eur J Nucl Med, vol.22, issue.9, pp.1043-63, 1995.

A. Devillers, A. Moisan, S. Jean, C. Arvieux, and P. Bourguet, Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime leucocyte scintigraphy for the diagnosis of bone and joint infections: a retrospective study in 116 patients, Eur J Nucl Med, vol.22, issue.4, pp.302-309, 1995.

L. Filippi and O. Schillaci, Usefulness of Hybrid SPECT/CT in 99mTc-HMPAO-Labeled Leukocyte Scintigraphy for Bone and Joint Infections, J Nucl Med, vol.47, issue.12, pp.1908-1921, 2006.

A. Rivière, H. De-clermont, K. Farid, M. Guyot, R. Jeandot et al., Intérêt de l'imagerie hybride TEMP-TDM dans l'exploration des infections, Médecine Nucléaire, vol.32, issue.3, pp.146-53, 2008.

I. Morelec, P. Lafont, C. Houzard, O. Pellet, and . Gf, 18FDG et infection. Med Nucl Imag Fonct Metab, vol.32, pp.173-89, 2008.

T. W. Bauer, J. Parvizi, and N. Kobayashi, Diagnosis of periprosthetic infection, J Bone Jt Surg -Ser A, vol.92, issue.2, p.524, 2010.

J. Yoon, Y. Shin, and Y. , Diagnostic accuracy of interleukin-6 and procalcitonin in patients with periprosthetic joint infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Int Orthop, vol.42, issue.6, pp.1213-1239, 2018.

C. Deirmengian, K. Kardos, P. Kilmartin, S. Gulati, P. Citrano et al., The Alphadefensin Test for Periprosthetic Joint Infection Responds to a Wide Spectrum of Organisms, Clin Orthop Relat Res, vol.473, issue.7, pp.2229-2264, 2015.

W. Z. Stone, C. F. Gray, H. K. Parvataneni, M. Al-rashid, R. G. Vlasak et al., Clinical Evaluation of Synovial Alpha Defensin and Synovial C-Reactive Protein in the Diagnosis of Periprosthetic Joint Infection, J Bone Joint Surg Am, vol.100, issue.14, pp.1184-90, 2018.

G. Riccio, L. Cavagnaro, W. Akkouche, G. Carrega, L. Felli et al., Qualitative Alphadefensin Versus The Main Available Tests For The Diagnosis Of Periprosthetic Joint Infection: Best Predictor Test?, J bone Jt, vol.3, issue.3, pp.156-64, 2018.

. De-saint, B. Vincent, H. Migaud, E. Senneville, C. Loiez et al., Diagnostic accuracy of the alpha-defensin lateral flow device (Synovasure) for periprosthetic infections in microbiologically complex situations: A study of 42 cases in a French referral centre, Rev Chir Orthop Traumatol, vol.104, issue.4, pp.299-303, 2018.

A. Shahi, J. Parvizi, G. S. Kazarian, C. Higuera, S. Frangiamore et al., The Alphadefensin Test for Periprosthetic Joint Infections Is Not Affected by Prior Antibiotic Administration, Clin Orthop Relat Res, issue.7, p.474, 2016.

C. Deirmengian, K. Kardos, P. Kilmartin, A. Cameron, K. Schiller et al., Combined measurement of synovial fluid ?-Defensin and C-reactive protein levels: highly accurate for diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection, J Bone Joint Surg Am, vol.96, issue.17, pp.1439-1484, 2014.

M. C. Wyatt, A. D. Beswick, S. K. Kunutsor, M. J. Wilson, M. R. Whitehouse et al., The Alpha-Defensin Immunoassay and Leukocyte Esterase Colorimetric Strip Test for the Diagnosis of Periprosthetic Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, J Bone Joint Surg Am, vol.98, issue.12, pp.992-1000, 2016.

V. K. Aggarwal, E. Tischler, E. Ghanem, and J. Parvizi, Leukocyte Esterase From Synovial Fluid Aspirate: A Technical Note, J Arthroplastyn, vol.28, issue.1, pp.193-198, 2013.

P. A. Mackowiak, S. R. Jones, and J. W. Smith, Diagnostic Value of Sinus-tract Cultures in Chronic Osteomyelitis, JAMA, vol.239, issue.26, pp.2772-2777, 1978.

X. Qu, Z. Zhai, C. Wu, J. F. Li, H. Wang et al., Preoperative aspiration culture for preoperative diagnosis of infection in total hip or knee arthroplasty, J Clin Microbiol, vol.51, issue.11, pp.3830-3834, 2013.

, Ponction simple contre ponction biopsie au trocart pour le bilan diagnostiquebactériologique des infections ostéo-articulaires, Rev Chir Orthopédique Traumatol, vol.84, p.685, 1998.

B. L. Atkins, N. Athanasou, J. J. Deeks, D. W. Crook, H. Simpson et al., Prospective evaluation of criteria for microbiological diagnosis of prosthetic-joint infection at revision arthroplasty. The OSIRIS Collaborative Study Group, J Clin Microbiol, vol.36, issue.10, pp.2932-2941, 1998.

M. I. Ivy, M. J. Thoendel, P. R. Jeraldo, K. E. Greenwood-quaintance, A. D. Hanssen et al., Direct Detection and Identification of Prosthetic Joint Infection Pathogens in Synovial Fluid by, J Clin Microbiol, vol.56, issue.9, 2018.

C. Plouzeau, P. Bémer, A. S. Valentin, G. Héry-arnaud, D. Tandé et al., First Experience of a Multicenter External Quality Assessment of Molecular 16S rRNA
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01130446

, Gene Detection in Bone and Joint Infections. Patel R, editor. J Clin Microbiol, vol.53, issue.2, pp.419-443, 2015.

A. Dubouix-bourandy, A. De-ladoucette, V. Pietri, N. Mehdi, D. Benzaquen et al., Direct detection of Staphylococcus osteoarticular infections by use of Xpert MRSA/SA SSTI real-time PCR, J Clin Microbiol, vol.49, issue.12, pp.4225-4255, 2011.

F. Valour, V. Blanc-pattin, A. Marie, F. Bouaziz, A. Chanard et al., Rapid detection of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistance in bone and joint infection samples: evaluation of the GeneXpert MRSA/SA SSTI assay, Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01823803

, System A report from the N. National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) System Report, data summary from, vol.32, pp.470-85, 1992.

A. Wa, . Culbertson-wr, and . Vm, Prophylactic antibiotic therapy, AMA Arch Surg

, Antibioprophylaxie en chirurgie et médecine interventionnelle (patients adultes), Ann Fr Anesth Reanim, vol.30, issue.2, pp.168-90, 2010.

D. R. Osmon, E. F. Berbari, A. R. Berendt, D. Lew, W. Zimmerli et al., Diagnosis and management of prosthetic joint infection: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America, Clin Infect Dis

Q. C. Truong-bolduc, Y. Wang, and D. C. Hooper, Tet38 Efflux Pump Contributes to Fosfomycin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, vol.62, issue.8, 2018.

D. Breilh, E. Boselli, J. C. Bel, D. Chassard, M. C. Saux et al., Diffusion of Cefepime into Cancellous and Cortical Bone Tissue, J Chemother, vol.15, issue.2, pp.134-142, 2003.

L. Legout, E. Senneville, R. Stern, Y. Yazdanpanah, C. Savage et al., Treatment of bone and joint infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli with a cefepime-fluoroquinolone combination, Clin Microbiol Infect, vol.12, issue.10, pp.1030-1033, 2006.

E. Bernard, I. Perbost, M. Carles, A. Michiels, H. Carsenti-etesse et al., Efficacy and safety of vancomycin constant-rate infusion in the treatment of chronic Gram-positive bone and joint infections, Clin Microbiol Infect, vol.3, issue.4, pp.440-446, 1997.

A. Vuagnat, R. Stern, A. Lotthe, H. Schuhmacher, M. Duong et al., High dose vancomycin for osteomyelitis: continuous vs. intermittent infusion, J Clin Pharm Ther, vol.29, issue.4, pp.351-358, 2004.

D. Rice and L. Mendez-vigo, Daptomycin in bone and joint infections: a review of the literature, Arch Orthop Trauma Surg, vol.129, issue.11, p.1495, 2008.

J. A. Crompton, D. S. North, S. A. Mcconnell, and K. C. Lamp, Safety and Efficacy of Daptomycin in the Treatment of Osteomyelitis: Results from the CORE® Registry, J Chemother, 2009.

C. Joseph, O. Robineau, M. Titecat, S. Putman, N. Blondiaux et al., Daptomycin versus Vancomycin as Post-Operative Empirical Antibiotic Treatment for Prosthetic Joint Infections: A Case-Control Study, J Bone Jt Infect, vol.4, issue.2, pp.72-77, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02573124

M. Wootton, A. P. Macgowan, and T. R. Walsh, Comparative bactericidal activities of daptomycin and vancomycin against glycopeptide-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (GISA) and heterogeneous GISA isolates, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, vol.50, issue.10, pp.4195-4202, 2006.

M. Heidary, A. D. Khosravi, S. Khoshnood, M. J. Nasiri, S. Soleimani et al.,

.. Daptomycin and . Chemother, , vol.73, pp.1-11, 2017.

E. Takoudju, P. Bémer, S. Touchais, N. Asseray, S. Corvec et al., Bacteriological relevance of linezolid vs. vancomycin in postoperative empirical treatment of osteoarticular infections: a retrospective single-center study, Int J Antimicrob Agents, vol.52, issue.5, pp.663-669, 2018.

M. E. Falagas, I. I. Siempos, P. J. Papagelopoulos, and K. Z. Vardakas, Linezolid for the treatment of adults with bone and joint infections, Int J Antimicrob Agents, vol.29, issue.3, pp.233-242, 2007.

L. Deroche, C. Plouzeau, P. Bémer, D. Tandé, A. S. Valentin et al., Probabilistic chemotherapy in knee and hip replacement infection: the place of linezolid, Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, vol.38, issue.9, pp.1659-63, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02627582

M. S. Dryden, Linezolid pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in clinical treatment, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol.66, issue.suppl_4, pp.7-15, 2011.

J. Di-paolo, C. Loiez, M. Debailleul, S. Genay, H. Dezeque et al., Utilisation du ceftobripole en monothérapie dans le traitement post-opératoire d'attente après reprise septique à propos de 298 cas dont 165 prothèses ostéoarticulaires, Médecine Mal Infect, vol.49, p.86, 2019.

C. Isnard, A. Dhalluin, D. Malandain, Q. Bruey, M. Auzou et al., In vitro activity of novel anti-MRSA cephalosporins and comparator antimicrobial agents against staphylococci involved in prosthetic joint infections, J Glob Antimicrob Resist, vol.13, pp.221-226, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02263735

D. Malandain, A. Dinh, T. Ferry, S. Touchais, S. Lustig et al., Salvage therapy for complex bone and joint infections with ceftaroline: a multicentre
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01578743

, Int J Antimicrob Agents, vol.50, issue.2, pp.277-80, 2017.

, Stratégie d'antibiothérapie et prévention des résistances bactériennes en établissement de santé, HAS, 2008.

O. C. El-helou, E. F. Berbari, B. D. Lahr, J. E. Eckel-passow, R. R. Razonable et al., Efficacy and safety of rifampin containing regimen for staphylococcal prosthetic joint infections treated with debridement and retention, Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, vol.29, issue.8, pp.961-968, 2010.

E. Senneville, D. Joulie, L. Legout, M. Valette, H. Dezèque et al., Outcome and Predictors of Treatment Failure in Total Hip/Knee Prosthetic Joint Infections Due to Staphylococcus aureus, Clin Infect Dis, vol.53, issue.4, pp.334-374, 2011.

W. Zimmerli, A. F. Widmer, M. Blatter, R. Frei, and P. E. Ochsner, Group for the F-BI (FBI) S. Role of Rifampin for Treatment of Orthopedic Implant-Related Staphylococcal Infections A Randomized Controlled Trial, JAMA, vol.279, issue.19, pp.1537-1578, 1998.

Y. Achermann, K. Eigenmann, B. Ledergerber, L. Derksen, P. Rafeiner et al., Factors associated with rifampin resistance in staphylococcal periprosthetic joint infections (PJI): a matched case-control study, Infection, vol.41, issue.2, pp.431-438, 2013.

E. Tornero, L. Morata, J. C. Martínez-pastor, S. Angulo, A. Combalia et al., Importance of selection and duration of antibiotic regimen in prosthetic joint infections treated with debridement and implant retention, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol.71, issue.5, pp.1395-401, 2016.

T. N. Peel, K. L. Buising, M. M. Dowsey, C. A. Aboltins, J. R. Daffy et al., Outcome of debridement and retention in prosthetic joint infections by methicillin-resistant staphylococci, with special reference to rifampin and fusidic acid combination therapy, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, vol.57, issue.1, pp.350-355

R. Pushkin, M. D. Iglesias-ussel, K. Keedy, C. Maclauchlin, D. R. Mould et al., A Randomized Study Evaluating Oral Fusidic Acid (CEM-102) in Combination With Oral Rifampin Compared With Standard-of-Care Antibiotics for Treatment of Prosthetic Joint Infections: A Newly Identified Drug-Drug Interaction, Clin Infect Dis, vol.63, issue.12, pp.1599-604, 2016.

W. Siala, H. Rodriguez-villalobos, P. Fernandes, P. M. Tulkens, and F. Van-bambeke, Activities of Combinations of Antistaphylococcal Antibiotics with Fusidic Acid against

, Staphylococcal Biofilms in In Vitro Static and Dynamic Models, vol.62, 2018.

C. G. Carvalhaes, H. S. Sader, R. K. Flamm, and R. E. Mendes, Tedizolid in vitro activity against Gram-positive clinical isolates causing bone and joint infections in hospitals in the USA and Europe (2014-17), J Antimicrob Chemother, vol.74, issue.7, pp.1928-1961, 2019.

S. Nguyen, A. Pasquet, L. Legout, E. Beltrand, L. Dubreuil et al., Efficacy and tolerance of rifampicin-linezolid compared with rifampicin-cotrimoxazole combinations in prolonged oral therapy for bone and joint infections, Clin Microbiol Infect, vol.15, issue.12, pp.1163-1172, 2009.

L. Deconinck, A. Dinh, C. Nich, T. Tritz, M. Matt et al., Efficacy of cotrimoxazole (Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim) as a salvage therapy for the treatment of bone and joint infections (BJIs). PLoS One, vol.14, p.224106, 2019.

A. Saleh-mghir, C. Muller-serieys, A. Dinh, L. Massias, and A. Crémieux, Adjunctive Rifampin Is Crucial to Optimizing Daptomycin Efficacy against Rabbit Prosthetic Joint Infection Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, vol.55, issue.10, pp.4589-93, 2011.

, Xydalba summary of product characteristics

A. Dinh, C. Duran, P. Pavese, L. Khatchatourian, B. Monnin et al., French national cohort of first use of dalbavancin: A high proportion of off-label use, Int J Antimicrob Agents, vol.54, issue.5, pp.668-72, 2019.

U. Rappo, S. Puttagunta, V. Shevchenko, A. Shevchenko, A. Jandourek et al., Dalbavancin for the Treatment of Osteomyelitis in Adult Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Efficacy and Safety, Open Forum Infect Dis, vol.6, issue.1, 2018.

M. Redell, M. Sierra-hoffman, M. Assi, M. Bochan, D. Chansolme et al., The CHROME Study, a Real-world Experience of Single-and Multiple-Dose Oritavancin for Treatment of Gram-Positive Infections. Open forum Infect Dis, vol.6, pp.479-479, 2019.

D. R. Osmon, E. F. Berbari, A. R. Berendt, D. Lew, W. Zimmerli et al., Diagnosis and Management of Prosthetic Joint Infection: Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of Americaa, Clin Infect Dis, vol.56, issue.1, pp.1-25, 2012.

R. R. Laffer, P. Graber, P. E. Ochsner, and W. Zimmerli, Outcome of prosthetic knee-associated infection: evaluation of 40 consecutive episodes at a single centre, Clin Microbiol Infect, vol.12, issue.5, pp.433-442, 2006.

J. Lora-tamayo, G. Euba, J. Cobo, J. P. Horcajada, A. Soriano et al., Shortversus long-duration levofloxacin plus rifampicin for acute staphylococcal prosthetic joint infection managed with implant retention: a randomised clinical trial, Int J Antimicrob Agents, vol.48, issue.3, pp.310-316, 2016.

C. B. Landersdorfer, J. B. Bulitta, M. Kinzig, U. Holzgrabe, and F. Sörgel, Penetration of Antibacterials into Bone, Clin Pharmacokinet, vol.48, issue.2, pp.89-124, 2009.

M. Pradier, S. Nguyen, O. Robineau, M. Titecat, N. Blondiaux et al., Suppressive antibiotic therapy with oral doxycycline for Staphylococcus aureus prosthetic joint infection: a retrospective study of 39 patients, Int J Antimicrob Agents, vol.50, issue.3, pp.447-52, 2017.

R. Escudero-sanchez, E. Senneville, M. Digumber, A. Soriano, M. D. Del-toro et al., Suppressive antibiotic therapy in prosthetic joint infections: a multicentre cohort study, Clin Microbiol Infect, vol.26, issue.4, pp.499-505, 2020.

I. Byren, P. Bejon, B. L. Atkins, B. Angus, S. Masters et al., One hundred and twelve infected arthroplasties treated with "DAIR" (debridement, antibiotics and implant retention): antibiotic duration and outcome, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol.63, issue.6, pp.1264-71, 2009.

B. Johannsson, J. Taylor, C. R. Clark, H. Shamsuddin, S. E. Beekmann et al., Treatment approaches to prosthetic joint infections: results of an Emerging Infections Network survey, Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, vol.66, issue.1, pp.16-23, 2010.

D. R. Osmon, E. F. Berbari, A. R. Berendt, D. Lew, W. Zimmerli et al., Diagnosis and management of prosthetic joint infection: clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America, Clin Infect Dis

G. K. Triantafyllopoulos, L. A. Poultsides, W. Zhang, P. K. Sculco, Y. Ma et al.,

, Periprosthetic Knee Infections Treated with Irrigation and Debridement: Outcomes and Preoperative Predictive Factors, J Arthroplasty, vol.30, issue.4, pp.649-57, 2015.

J. Lora-tamayo, O. Murillo, J. A. Iribarren, A. Soriano, M. Sánchez-somolinos et al., Large Multicenter Study of Methicillin-Susceptible

, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Prosthetic Joint Infections Managed With Implant Retention, Clin Infect Dis, vol.56, issue.2, pp.182-94, 2012.

H. Choi, V. Knoch, F. Zurakowski, D. Nelson, S. B. Malchau et al., Can implant retention be recommended for treatment of infected TKA?, Clin Orthop Relat Res, 2011.

I. Byren, P. Bejon, B. L. Atkins, B. Angus, S. Masters et al., One hundred and twelve infected arthroplasties treated with "DAIR" (debridement, antibiotics and implant retention): antibiotic duration and outcome, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol.63, issue.6, pp.1264-71, 2009.

C. E. Marculescu, E. F. Berbari, A. D. Hanssen, J. M. Steckelberg, S. W. Harmsen et al., Outcome of prosthetic joint infections treated with debridement and retention of components, Clin Infect Dis, vol.42, issue.4, pp.471-479, 2006.

M. Silva, R. Tharani, and T. P. Schmalzried, Results of direct exchange or debridement of the infected total knee arthroplasty, Clin Orthop Relat Res, issue.404, pp.125-156, 2002.

C. E. Marculescu, E. F. Berbari, A. D. Hanssen, J. M. Steckelberg, S. W. Harmsen et al., Outcome of prosthetic joint infections treated with debridement and retention of components, Clin Infect Dis, vol.42, issue.4, pp.471-479, 2006.

S. Qasim, A. Swann, and R. Ashford, The DAIR (debridement, antibiotics and implant retention) procedure for infected total knee replacement -a literature review, SICOT-J, vol.3, issue.2, 2017.

S. K. Kunutsor, A. D. Beswick, M. R. Whitehouse, V. Wylde, and A. W. Blom, Debridement, antibiotics and implant retention for periprosthetic joint infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis of treatment outcomes, J Infect, vol.77, issue.6, pp.479-88, 2018.

P. Lichstein, T. Gehrke, and A. Lombardi, One-stage Versus Two-stage Exchange, J Orthop Res, vol.32, issue.S1, pp.141-147, 2014.

V. Zeller, L. Lhotellier, S. Marmor, P. Leclerc, A. Krain et al., One-Stage Exchange Arthroplasty for Chronic Periprosthetic Hip Infection: Results of a Large Prospective Cohort Study, JBJS, vol.96, issue.1, 2014.

C. L. Romanò, L. Gala, N. Logoluso, D. Romanò, and L. Drago, Two-stage revision of septic knee prosthesis with articulating knee spacers yields better infection eradication rate than one-stage or two-stage revision with static spacers, Sport Traumatol Arthrosc, vol.20, issue.12, pp.2445-53, 2012.

F. Langlais, Can we improve the results of revision arthroplasty for infected total hip replacement?, J Bone Joint Surg Br, vol.85, pp.637-677, 2003.

W. Zimmerli and P. E. Ochsner, Management of Infection Associated with Prosthetic Joints. Infection, vol.31, issue.2, pp.99-108, 2003.

A. M. Minassian, D. R. Osmon, and A. R. Berendt, Clinical guidelines in the management of prosthetic joint infection, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol.69, issue.suppl_1, pp.29-35, 2014.

S. Esposito, S. Leone, M. Bassetti, S. Borrè, F. Leoncini et al., Italian Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Infectious Disease Management of Osteomyelitis and Prosthetic Joint Infections in Adults, Infection, vol.37, issue.6, pp.478-96, 2009.

L. Bernard, P. Hoffmeyer, M. Assal, P. Vaudaux, J. Schrenzel et al., Trends in the treatment of orthopaedic prosthetic infections, J Antimicrob Chemother

D. L. Cherney and H. C. Amstutz, Total hip replacement in the previously septic hip, JBJS, vol.65, issue.9, 1983.

M. Nguyen, M. Sukeik, A. Zahar, I. Nizam, and F. S. Haddad, One-stage Exchange Arthroplasty for Periprosthetic Hip and Knee Joint Infections, Open Orthop J, vol.10, pp.646-53, 2016.

J. Cordero-ampuero, Girdlestone Procedure: When and Why, vol.22, pp.36-45, 2012.

S. Esenwein, K. Robert, E. Kollig, T. Ambacher, F. Kutscha-lissberg et al.,

, Chirurg, vol.72, pp.1336-1379, 2001.

R. Kuchinad, M. S. Fourman, A. T. Fragomen, and S. R. Rozbruch, Knee Arthrodesis as Limb Salvage for Complex Failures of Total Knee Arthroplasty, J Arthroplasty, vol.29, issue.11, pp.2150-2155, 2014.

R. Schwarzkopf, T. L. Kahn, J. Succar, and J. E. Ready, Success of Different Knee Arthrodesis Techniques After Failed Total Knee Arthroplasty: Is There a Preferred Technique?, J Arthroplasty, vol.29, issue.5, pp.982-990, 2014.

R. J. Sierra, R. T. Trousdale, and M. W. Pagnano, Above-the-Knee Amputation After a Total Knee Replacement : Prevalence, Etiology, and Functional Outcome, JBJS, vol.85, issue.6, 2003.

M. Grosset, A. Lemaignen, S. Touchais, C. Arvieux, N. Bell et al., Traitement Palliatif des infections ostéo-articulaires par fistulisation : une option raisonnable ?, Médecine Mal Infect, vol.49, issue.4, p.87, 2019.

S. Estoril, 34 th Annual Meeting of the European Bone and Joint Infection Society ( EBJIS ) A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THREE BIOABSORBABLE ANTIBIOTIC CARRIERS IN CHRONIC, pp.10-12, 2015.

M. A. Mcnally, J. Y. Ferguson, A. Lau, M. Diefenbeck, M. Scarborough et al., Single-stage treatment of chronic osteomyelitis with a new absorbable, gentamicinloaded, calcium sulphate/hydroxyapatite biocomposite: A prospective series of 100 cases, Bone Jt J, vol.98, issue.9, pp.1289-96, 2016.

S. Berlot-moirez, G. Pavon-djavid, B. Montdargent, M. Jozefowicz, and V. Migonney, Modulation of Staphylococcus aureus adhesion by biofunctional copolymers derived from polystyrene, Itbm-Rbm, vol.23, issue.2, pp.102-110, 2002.

G. &. Pavon-djavid, G. Hélary, and V. Migonney, « Les biomatériaux inhibiteurs de l'adhérence et de la prolifération bactérienne : un enjeu pour la prévention des infections sur matériel prothétique, 2005.

P. Jault, T. Leclerc, S. Jennes, J. P. Pirnay, Y. A. Que et al., Efficacy and tolerability of a cocktail of bacteriophages to treat burn wounds infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PhagoBurn): a randomised, controlled, double-blind phase 1/2 trial, Lancet Infect Dis, vol.19, issue.1, pp.35-45, 2019.

S. Kaur, K. Harjai, and . Cs, In vivo assessment of phage and linezolid based implant coatings for treatment of methicillin resistant (MRSA) mediated orthopaedic device related infections, PLoS ONE, 2016.

W. C. Valerie, B. W. Soo, H. Kwan, I. Quezada, B. Castillo-juárez et al., Repurposing of Anticancer Drugs for the Treatment of Bacterial Infections, Curr Top Med Chem, vol.17, p.1157

, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), 2009.

, Breakpoint tables for interpretation of MICs and zone diameters. Version 8.1, The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, 2018.

. Medistica, io, a graphic user interface to the R statistical analysis software for scientific medical publications, 2019.

S. E. Beekmann, D. N. Gilbert, and P. M. Polgreen, Toxicity of extended courses of linezolid: results of an Infectious Diseases Society of America Emerging Infections Network survey, Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, vol.62, issue.4, pp.407-417, 2008.

L. M. Boak, C. R. Rayner, M. L. Grayson, D. L. Paterson, D. Spelman et al., Clinical Population Pharmacokinetics and Toxicodynamics of Linezolid, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, vol.58, issue.4, pp.2334-2343, 2014.

M. K. Luther, T. T. Timbrook, A. R. Caffrey, D. Dosa, T. P. Lodise et al., Vancomycin Plus Piperacillin-Tazobactam and Acute Kidney Injury in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Crit Care Med, vol.46, issue.1, 2018.

P. Harris, P. A. Tambyah, and D. L. Paterson, ?-lactam and ?-lactamase inhibitor combinations in the treatment of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae: time for a reappraisal in the era of few antibiotic options? Lancet Infect Dis, vol.15, pp.475-85, 2015.

.. R. Moellering and . Linezolid, The First Oxazolidinone Antimicrobial, Ann Intern Med, vol.138, issue.2, pp.135-177, 2003.

M. S. Niederman, J. Chastre, C. T. Solem, Y. Wan, X. Gao et al., Health Economic Evaluation of Patients Treated for Nosocomial Pneumonia Caused by Methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus: Secondary Analysis of a Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Vancomycin and Linezolid, Clin Ther, vol.36, issue.9, pp.1233-1243, 2014.

M. Pettigrew, D. Thirion, M. Libman, and G. Zanotti, Cost Comparison of Linezolid Versus Vancomycin for Treatment of Complicated Skin and Skin-Structure Infection Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Quebec, Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol, vol.23, p.585603, 2012.

G. G. Aubin, M. E. Portillo, A. Trampuz, and S. Corvec, Propionibacterium acnes, an emerging pathogen: From acne to implant-infections, from phylotype to resistance, Médecine Mal Infect, vol.44, issue.6, pp.241-50, 2014.

J. Lourtet-hascoët, M. P. Félicé, A. Bicart-see, A. Bouige, G. Giordano et al., Species and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of coagulase-negative staphylococci in periprosthetic joint infections, Epidemiol Infect, vol.146, issue.14, pp.1771-1777, 2018.

D. M. Livermore, A. P. Macgowan, and M. Wale, Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance, British Medical Journal, vol.317, p.p, 1998.

K. Becker, C. Heilmann, and G. Peters, Coagulase-negative staphylococci, Clin Microbiol Rev, vol.27, issue.4, pp.870-926, 2014.

J. Van-erp, A. Heineken, R. Van-wensen, R. Van-kempen, J. Hendriks et al., Optimization of the empirical antibiotic choice during the treatment of acute prosthetic joint infections, Acta Orthop, 2019.

, Gestion pré-opératoire du risque infectieux, SF2H, 2013.

J. Cremniter, A. Slassi, J. Quincampoix, V. Sivadon-tardy, T. Bauer et al., Decreased Susceptibility to Teicoplanin and Vancomycin in Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Orthopedic-Device-Associated Infections, J Clin Microbiol, vol.48, issue.4, pp.1428-1431, 2010.

A. Soriano, F. Marco, J. A. Martínez, E. Pisos, M. Almela et al., Influence of Vancomycin Minimum Inhibitory Concentration on the Treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia, Clin Infect Dis, vol.46, issue.2, pp.193-200, 2008.

R. E. Mendes, L. Deshpande, J. M. Streit, H. S. Sader, M. Castanheira et al., ZAAPS programme results for 2016: an activity and spectrum analysis of linezolid using clinical isolates from medical centres in 42 countries, J Antimicrob Chemother, 2018.

, Apr, vol.6, issue.7, pp.1880-1887

M. A. Pfaller, R. E. Mendes, J. M. Streit, P. A. Hogan, and R. K. Flamm, Five-Year Summary of In Vitro Activity and Resistance Mechanisms of Linezolid against Clinically Important Gram-Positive Cocci in the United States from the LEADER Surveillance Program, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, issue.7, p.61, 2011.

L. Dortet, P. Glaser, N. Kassis-chikhani, D. Girlich, P. Ichai et al., Long-lasting successful dissemination of resistance to oxazolidinones in MDR Staphylococcus epidermidis clinical isolates in a tertiary care hospital in France, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol.73, issue.1, pp.41-51, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-02565669

J. B. Locke, G. E. Zurenko, K. J. Shaw, and K. Bartizal, Tedizolid for the Management of Human Infections: In Vitro Characteristics, Clin Infect Dis, vol.58, issue.suppl_1, pp.35-42, 2014.

D. J. Skiest, Treatment Failure Resulting from Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to Daptomycin, J Clin Microbiol, vol.44, issue.2, pp.655-661, 2006.

M. K. Hayden, K. Rezai, R. A. Hayes, K. Lolans, J. P. Quinn et al., Development of Daptomycin Resistance In Vivo in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, J Clin Microbiol, vol.43, issue.10, pp.5285-5292, 2005.

H. S. Sader, R. K. Flamm, and R. N. Jones, Antimicrobial activity of daptomycin tested against Gram-positive pathogens collected in Europe, Latin America, and selected countries in the Asia-Pacific Region, Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, vol.75, issue.4, pp.417-439, 2011.

P. Sendi, M. Rohrbach, P. Graber, R. Frei, P. E. Ochsner et al., Staphylococcus aureus Small Colony Variants in Prosthetic Joint Infection, Clin Infect Dis, vol.43, issue.8, pp.961-968, 2006.

J. Parvizi, T. L. Tan, K. Goswami, C. Higuera, D. Valle et al., Definition of Periprosthetic Hip and Knee Infection: An Evidence-Based and Validated Criteria, e2. ANNEXES Annexe I. Pénétration osseuse des antibiotiques, vol.33, pp.1309-1314, 2018.

, Je jure, en présence des maîtres de la Faculté

, D'honorer ceux qui m'ont instruit(e) dans les préceptes de mon art et de leur témoigner ma reconnaissance en restant fidèle à leur enseignement

, intérêt de la santé publique, ma profession avec conscience et de respecter non seulement la législation en vigueur, mais aussi les règles de l'honneur

, De ne jamais oublier ma responsabilité et mes devoirs envers le malade et sa dignité humaine

, En aucun cas, je ne consentirai à utiliser mes connaissances et mon état pour corrompre les moeurs et favoriser des actes criminels

, Que les hommes m'accordent leur estime si je suis fidèle à mes promesses

, Que je sois couvert(e) d'opprobre et méprisé(e) de mes confrères si j'y manque

E. Hanche and G. Et-epaule,