M. M. Alper and B. C. Fauser, Ovarian stimulation protocols for IVF: is more better than less?, Reproductive BioMedicine Online, vol.34, pp.345-353, 2017.

B. Aran, J. Blanco, F. Vidal, J. M. Vendrell, S. Egozcue et al., Screening for abnormalities of chromosomes X, Y, and 18 and for diploidy in spermatozoa from infertile men participating in an in vitro fertilization-intracytoplasmic sperm injection program, Fertility and Sterility, vol.72, pp.696-701, 1999.

E. B. Baart, E. Martini, . Berg-i-van-den, N. S. Macklon, R. Galjaard et al., Preimplantation genetic screening reveals a high incidence of aneuploidy and mosaicism in embryos from young women undergoing IVF, Hum Reprod, vol.21, pp.223-233, 2006.

E. B. Baart, E. Martini, M. J. Eijkemans, D. Van-opstal, N. Beckers et al., Milder ovarian stimulation for in-vitro fertilization reduces aneuploidy in the human preimplantation embryo: a randomized controlled trial, Human Reproduction, vol.22, pp.980-988, 2007.

H. Balakier, D. Bouman, A. Sojecki, C. Librach, and J. A. Squire, Morphological and cytogenetic analysis of human giant oocytes and giant embryos, Hum Reprod, vol.17, pp.2394-2401, 2002.

S. Brahem, M. Mehdi, H. Elghezal, and A. Saad, Detection of DNA fragmentation and meiotic segregation in human with isolated teratozoospermia, J Assist Reprod Genet, vol.28, pp.41-48, 2011.

N. Burrello, A. E. Calogero, D. Palma, A. Grazioso, C. Torrisi et al., Chromosome analysis of epididymal and testicular spermatozoa in patients with azoospermia, Eur J Hum Genet, vol.10, pp.362-366, 2002.

A. Calogero, N. Burrello, D. Palma, A. Barone, N. et al., Sperm aneuploidy in infertile men, Reproductive BioMedicine Online, vol.6, pp.310-317, 2003.

A. E. Calogero, D. Palma, A. Graziose, C. Barone, N. Romeo et al., Aneuploidy rate in spermatozoa of selected men with abnormal semen parameters, Hum Reprod, vol.16, pp.1172-1179, 2001.

A. Capalbo, N. Treff, D. Cimadomo, X. Tao, S. Ferrero et al., Abnormally fertilized oocytes can result in healthy live births: improved genetic technologies for preimplantation genetic testing can be used to rescue viable embryos in in vitro fertilization cycles, Fertility and Sterility, vol.108, pp.1007-1015, 2017.

Z. Chen, J. Yan, and H. L. Feng, Aneuploid analysis of tripronuclear zygotes derived from in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in humans, Fertil Steril, vol.83, pp.1845-1848, 2005.

J. Cheng and Y. Liu, Age-Related Loss of Cohesion: Causes and Effects, Int J Mol Sci, vol.18, p.1578, 2017.

T. Chiang, F. E. Duncan, K. Schindler, R. M. Schultz, and M. A. Lampson, Evidence that weakened centromere cohesion is a leading cause of age-related aneuploidy in oocytes, Curr Biol, vol.20, pp.1522-1528, 2010.

D. Cimadomo, G. Fabozzi, A. Vaiarelli, N. Ubaldi, F. M. Ubaldi et al., Impact of Maternal Age on Oocyte and Embryo Competence, Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), vol.9, p.327, 2018.

D. Clift and M. Schuh, Restarting life: fertilization and the transition from meiosis to mitosis, Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, vol.14, pp.549-562, 2013.

S. Colaco and D. Sakkas, Paternal factors contributing to embryo quality, J Assist Reprod Genet, vol.35, pp.1953-1968, 2018.

S. Egozcue, J. M. Vendrell, F. Garcia, A. Veiga, B. Aran et al., Increased Incidence of Meiotic Anomalies in Oligoasthenozoospermic Males Preselected for Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection, J Assist Reprod Genet, vol.17, pp.307-309, 2000.

U. Eichenlaub-ritter, Oocyte ageing and its cellular basis, Int J Dev Biol, vol.56, pp.841-852, 2013.

H. Feng and A. Hershlag, Fertilization abnormalities following human in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection, Microsc Res Tech, vol.61, pp.358-361, 2003.

G. Ferreyra, J. Villegas, L. Romero, R. Zavala, P. Hilario et al., Sperm DNA Fragmentation is Significantly Increased in Those Men with Morphologically Abnormal Spermatozoa, JFIV Reprod Med Genet, vol.02, p.3, 2014.

G. Ferreyra, R. Romero, R. Hilario, and J. Dueñas-chacon, High Levels of DNA Fragmentation Observed in an Infertile Population Attending a Fertility Center are Related to Advanced Paternal Age. ResearchGate, 2012.

J. García-ferreyra, D. Luna, L. Villegas, R. Romero, P. Zavala et al., High Aneuploidy Rates Observed in Embryos Derived from Donated Oocytes are Related to Male Aging and High Percentages of Sperm DNA Fragmentation, Clin Med Insights Reprod Health, vol.9, pp.21-27, 2015.

I. Gat, K. Tang, K. Quach, V. Kuznyetsov, R. Antes et al., Sperm DNA fragmentation index does not correlate with blastocyst aneuploidy or morphological grading, PLoS One, vol.12, p.179002, 2017.

P. Goud, A. Goud, P. Van-oostveldt, J. Van-der-elst, and M. Dhont, Fertilization abnormalities and pronucleus size asynchrony after intracytoplasmic sperm injection are related to oocyte postmaturity, Fertility and Sterility, vol.72, pp.245-252, 1999.

N. Grau, L. Escrich, J. Martín, C. Rubio, A. Pellicer et al., Self-correction in tripronucleated human embryos, Fertil Steril, vol.96, pp.951-956, 2011.

M. Grossmann, J. M. Calafell, N. Brandy, J. A. Vanrell, C. Rubio et al., Origin of tripronucleate zygotes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection, Hum Reprod, vol.12, pp.2762-2765, 1997.

T. Haaf, A. Hahn, A. Lambrecht, B. Grossmann, E. Schwaab et al., A high oocyte yield for intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment is associated with an increased chromosome error rate, Fertility and Sterility, vol.91, pp.733-738, 2009.

M. Herbert, D. Kalleas, D. Cooney, M. Lamb, and L. Lister, Meiosis and maternal aging: insights from aneuploid oocytes and trisomy births, Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol, vol.7, p.17970, 2015.

Z. Holubcová, D. Kyjovská, M. Martonová, D. Páralová, T. Klenková et al., Egg maturity assessment prior to ICSI prevents premature fertilization of late-maturing oocytes, J Assist Reprod Genet, vol.36, pp.445-452, 2019.

A. Isiklar, R. Mercan, B. Balaban, C. Alatas, S. Aksoy et al., Impact of oocyte preincubation time on fertilization, embryo quality and pregnancy rate after intracytoplasmic sperm injection, Reproductive BioMedicine Online, vol.8, pp.682-686, 2004.

M. Jacobs, A. M. Stolwijk, and A. M. Wetzels, The effect of insemination/injection time on the results of IVF and ICSI, Hum Reprod, vol.16, pp.1708-1713, 2001.

R. Jessberger, Age-related aneuploidy through cohesion exhaustion, EMBO Rep, vol.13, pp.539-546, 2012.

I. Kaarouch, N. Bouamoud, N. Louanjli, A. Madkour, H. Copin et al., Impact of sperm genome decay on Day-3 embryo chromosomal abnormalities from advancedmaternal-age patients, Molecular Reproduction and Development, vol.82, pp.809-819, 2015.

Y. Kai, K. Iwata, Y. Iba, and Y. Mio, Diagnosis of abnormal human fertilization status based on pronuclear origin and/or centrosome number, J Assist Reprod Genet, vol.32, pp.1589-1595, 2015.

K. H. Kalmbach, D. Antunes, R. C. Dracxler, T. W. Knier, M. L. Seth-smith et al., Telomeres and human reproduction, Fertil Steril, vol.99, pp.23-29, 2013.

D. L. Keefe, Telomeres and meiosis in health and disease, Cell Mol Life Sci, vol.64, pp.115-116, 2007.

J. Levron, S. Munné, S. Willadsen, Z. Rosenwaks, and J. Cohen, Male and female genomes associated in a single pronucleus in human zygotes, Biol Reprod, vol.52, pp.653-657, 1995.

E. Macas, B. Imthurn, M. Rosselli, and P. J. Keller, The chromosomal complements of multipronuclear human zygotes resulting from intracytoplasmic sperm injection, Hum Reprod, vol.11, pp.2496-2501, 1996.

M. Magli, L. Gianaroli, A. Ferraretti, S. Gordts, V. Fredericks et al., Paternal contribution to aneuploidy in preimplantation embryos, Reproductive BioMedicine Online, vol.18, pp.536-542, 2009.

H. E. Malter and J. Cohen, Embryonic development after microsurgical repair of polyspermic human zygotes, Fertility and Sterility, vol.52, pp.373-380, 1989.

S. Mateo, M. Parriego, M. Boada, F. Vidal, B. Coroleu et al., In vitro development and chromosome constitution of embryos derived from monopronucleated zygotes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection, Fertil Steril, vol.99, pp.897-902, 2013.

R. Mazzilli, D. Cimadomo, A. Vaiarelli, A. Capalbo, L. Dovere et al., Effect of the male factor on the clinical outcome of intracytoplasmic sperm injection combined with preimplantation aneuploidy testing: observational longitudinal cohort study of 1,219 consecutive cycles, Fertility and Sterility, vol.108, pp.961-972, 2017.

S. Munné and J. Cohen, Chromosome abnormalities in human embryos, Hum Reprod Update, vol.4, pp.842-855, 1998.

S. Munné, Y. X. Tang, J. Grifo, and J. Cohen, Origin of single pronucleated human zygotes, J Assist Reprod Genet, vol.10, pp.276-279, 1993.

Z. P. Nagy, D. Dozortsev, M. Diamond, L. Rienzi, F. Ubaldi et al., Pronuclear morphology evaluation with subsequent evaluation of embryo morphology significantly increases implantation rates, Fertility and Sterility, vol.80, pp.67-74, 2003.

Z. P. Nagy, J. Liu, H. Joris, P. Devroey, and A. Van-steirteghem, Time-course of oocyte activation, pronucleus formation and cleavage in human oocytes fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection, Hum Reprod, vol.9, pp.1743-1748, 1994.

L. Papale, A. Fiorentino, M. Montag, and G. Tomasi, The zygote, Human Reproduction, vol.27, pp.22-49, 2012.

D. Payne, S. P. Flaherty, M. F. Barry, and C. D. Matthews, Preliminary observations on polar body extrusion and pronuclear formation in human oocytes using time-lapse video cinematography, Human Reproduction, vol.12, pp.532-541, 1997.

S. D. Perreault, R. A. Wolff, and B. R. Zirkin, The role of disulfide bond reduction during mammalian sperm nuclear decondensation in vivo, Developmental Biology, vol.101, pp.160-167, 1984.

M. Petronczki, M. F. Siomos, and K. Nasmyth, Un Ménage à Quatre: The Molecular Biology of Chromosome Segregation in Meiosis, Cell, vol.112, pp.423-440, 2003.

J. Pfeffer, M. Pang, S. F. Hoegerman, C. J. Osgood, M. W. Stacey et al., Aneuploidy frequencies in semen fractions from ten oligoasthenoteratozoospermic patients donating sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection, Fertility and Sterility, vol.72, pp.472-478, 1999.

M. H. Pieters, J. C. Dumoulin, R. C. Ignoul-vanvuchelen, M. Bras, J. L. Evers et al., Triploidy after in vitro fertilization: cytogenetic analysis of human zygotes and embryos, J Assist Reprod Genet, vol.9, pp.68-76, 1992.

C. Ravel, N. Kazdar, H. Drapier, S. Duros, and P. Viard, Aide à l'activation ovocytaire -Un nouvel atout dans le traitement des infertilités masculines sévères

, Med Sci (Paris), vol.32, pp.198-203, 2016.

E. Revenkova, M. Eijpe, C. Heyting, C. A. Hodges, P. A. Hunt et al., Cohesin SMC1? is required for meiotic chromosome dynamics, sister chromatid cohesion and DNA recombination, Nat Cell Biol, vol.6, pp.555-562, 2004.

E. Revenkova, M. Eijpe, C. Heyting, C. A. Hodges, P. A. Hunt et al., Cohesin SMC1? is required for meiotic chromosome dynamics, sister chromatid cohesion and DNA recombination, Nature Cell Biology, vol.6, pp.555-562, 2004.

E. Revenkova, K. Herrmann, C. Adelfalk, and R. Jessberger, Cohesin expression restricted to the pre-dictyate stages of oocyte development provides full fertility and prevents aneuploidy, Curr Biol, vol.20, pp.1529-1533, 2010.

L. Rodrigo, V. Peinado, E. Mateu, J. Remohí, A. Pellicer et al., Impact of different patterns of sperm chromosomal abnormalities on the chromosomal constitution of preimplantation embryos, Fertility and Sterility, vol.94, pp.1380-1386, 2010.

N. T. Rogers, E. Hobson, S. Pickering, F. A. Lai, P. Braude et al., Phospholipase Czeta causes Ca2+ oscillations and parthenogenetic activation of human oocytes, Reproduction, vol.128, pp.697-702, 2004.

B. Rosenbusch, M. Schneider, B. Gläser, and C. Brucker, Cytogenetic analysis of giant oocytes and zygotes to assess their relevance for the development of digynic triploidy, Hum Reprod, vol.17, pp.2388-2393, 2002.

B. Rosenbusch, M. Schneider, and K. Sterzik, The chromosomal constitution of multipronuclear zygotes resulting from in-vitro fertilization, Hum Reprod, vol.12, pp.2257-2262, 1997.

B. E. Rosenbusch, Mechanisms giving rise to triploid zygotes during assisted reproduction, Fertil Steril, vol.90, pp.49-55, 2008.

S. Sadowy, G. Tomkin, S. Munné, T. Ferrara-congedo, and J. Cohen, Impaired development of zygotes with uneven pronuclear size, Zygote, vol.6, pp.137-141, 1998.

D. Sakkas, O. Moffatt, G. C. Manicardi, E. Mariethoz, N. Tarozzi et al., Nature of DNA Damage in Ejaculated Human Spermatozoa and the Possible Involvement of Apoptosis1, Biology of Reproduction, vol.66, pp.1061-1067, 2002.

L. Schmidt, T. Sobotka, and J. G. Bentzen, Nyboe Andersen A, on behalf of the ESHRE Reproduction and Society Task Force. Demographic and medical consequences of the postponement of parenthood, Human Reproduction Update, vol.18, pp.29-43, 2012.

L. Sekhon, K. Shaia, A. Santistevan, K. H. Cohn, J. A. Lee et al., The cumulative dose of gonadotropins used for controlled ovarian stimulation does not influence the odds of embryonic aneuploidy in patients with normal ovarian response, J Assist Reprod Genet, vol.34, pp.749-758, 2017.

S. Silber, T. Escudero, K. Lenahan, I. Abdelhadi, Z. Kilani et al., Chromosomal abnormalities in embryos derived from testicular sperm extraction, Fertility and Sterility, vol.79, pp.30-38, 2003.

C. Staessen and A. C. Van-steirteghem, The chromosomal constitution of embryos developing from abnormally fertilized oocytes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection and conventional in-vitro fertilization, Hum Reprod, vol.12, pp.321-327, 1997.

D. Stein, C. Ukogu, A. Ganza, D. Gounko, J. Lee et al., Paternal contribution to embryonic competence, Cent European J Urol, vol.72, pp.296-301, 2019.

K. M. Sultan, S. Munné, G. D. Palermo, M. Alikani, and J. Cohen, Chromosomal status of unipronuclear human zygotes following in-vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection, Hum Reprod, vol.10, pp.132-136, 1995.

Q. Sun, Cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to cortical reaction and polyspermy block in mammalian eggs, Microsc Res Tech, vol.61, pp.342-348, 2003.

P. Sutovsky, R. D. Moreno, J. Ramalho-santos, T. Dominko, C. Simerly et al., Ubiquitin tag for sperm mitochondria, Nature, vol.402, pp.371-372, 1999.

P. Sutovsky and G. Schatten, Depletion of Glutathione during Bovine Oocyte Maturation Reversibly Blocks the Decondensation of the Male Pronucleus and Pronuclear Apposition during Fertilization1, Biology of Reproduction, vol.56, pp.1503-1512, 1997.

S. S. Tang, H. Gao, Y. Zhao, and S. Ma, Aneuploidy and DNA fragmentation in morphologically abnormal sperm, International Journal of Andrology, vol.33, pp.163-179, 2010.

J. J. Tarin, Potential effects of age-associated oxidative stress on mammalian oocytes/embryos, Mol Hum Reprod, vol.2, pp.717-724, 1996.

N. R. Treff, J. Su, D. Taylor, and R. T. Scott, Telomere DNA Deficiency Is Associated with Development of Human Embryonic Aneuploidy, PLoS Genet [Internet], vol.7, p.1002161, 2011.

L. Vagnini, R. Baruffi, A. Mauri, C. Petersen, F. Massaro et al., The effects of male age on sperm DNA damage in an infertile population, Reproductive BioMedicine Online, vol.15, pp.514-519, 2007.

J. Van-blerkom, Mitochondrial function in the human oocyte and embryo and their role in developmental competence, Mitochondrion, vol.11, pp.797-813, 2011.

Q. Van-dyk, S. Lanzendorf, P. Kolm, G. D. Hodgen, and M. C. Mahony, Incidence of aneuploid spermatozoa from subfertile men: selected with motility versus hemizona-bound5, Human Reproduction, vol.15, pp.1529-1536, 2000.

Y. Watanabe and P. Nurse, Cohesin Rec8 is required for reductional chromosome segregation at meiosis, Nature, vol.400, pp.461-464, 1999.

S. Wiker, H. Malter, G. Wright, and J. Cohen, Recognition of paternal pronuclei in human zygotes, J Assist Reprod Genet, vol.7, pp.33-37, 1990.

X. Zhang, X. Q. Wu, S. Lu, Y. L. Guo, and X. Ma, Deficit of mitochondria-derived ATP during oxidative stress impairs mouse MII oocyte spindles, Cell Res, vol.16, pp.841-850, 2006.

U. Zollner, K. Zollner, G. Hartl, J. Dietl, and T. Steck, The use of a detailed zygote score after IVF/ICSI to obtain good quality blastocysts: the German experience, Human Reproduction, vol.17, pp.1327-1333, 2002.

. Serment-d'hippocrate,

, Au moment d'être admis à exercer la médecine, je promets et je jure d'être fidèle aux lois de l'honneur et de la probité

, Mon premier souci sera de rétablir, de préserver ou de promouvoir la santé dans tous ses éléments, physiques et mentaux, individuels et sociaux

, Je respecterai toutes les personnes, leur autonomie et leur volonté, sans aucune discrimination selon leur état ou leurs convictions

, J'interviendrai pour les protéger si elles sont affaiblies, vulnérables ou menacées dans leur intégrité ou leur dignité. Même sous la contrainte

, Je ne tromperai jamais leur confiance et n'exploiterai pas le pouvoir hérité des circonstances pour forcer les consciences

, Je donnerai mes soins à l'indigent et à quiconque me les demandera

, Je ne me laisserai pas influencer par la soif du gain ou la recherche de la gloire

, Reçu à l'intérieur des maisons, je respecterai les secrets des foyers et ma conduite ne servira pas à corrompre les moeurs

, Je préserverai l'indépendance nécessaire à l'accomplissement de ma mission

, Je les entretiendrai et les perfectionnerai pour assurer au mieux les services qui me seront demandés

, J'apporterai mon aide à mes confrères ainsi qu'à leurs familles dans l'adversité

, Que les hommes et mes confrères m'accordent leur estime si je suis fidèle à mes promesses

, que je sois déshonoré et méprisé si j'y manque