N. Teissier, Lymphangiomes cervico-faciaux : imagerie, diagnostic et traitement. EMC -otorhino-laryngologie, vol.12, pp.1-15, 2017.

E. R. Oliver, B. G. Coleman, S. E. Debari, and T. Victoria, Fetal Lymphatic Malformations : More Variable Than We Think ?, J.Ultrasound Med, vol.36, issue.5, pp.1051-1058, 2017.

S. Puig, B. Casati, A. Staudenherz, and K. Paya, Vascular low-flow malformations in children: current concepts for classification, diagnosis and therapy, European Journal of Radiology, vol.53, issue.1, pp.35-45, 2005.

A. Leroy, Bilan iconographique (échographie/IRM) dans l'évaluation anténatale des malformations lymphatiques kystiques cervicales, Imagerie anténatale des malformations lymphatiques kystiques. Gynécologie Obstétrique & Fertilité

V. Couloigner, P. Fayoux, M. Makeieff, R. Nicollas, and C. Righini, Les masses kystiques cervicales de l'adulte et de l'enfant. Rapport de la société Française d'ORL et de chirurgie cervico-faciale, pp.134-156, 2018.

J. N. Fleming, S. L. Hostikka, E. Y. Chen, S. M. Schwartz, and J. A. Perkins, Plasmacytoid dendritic cells and interferon levels are increased in lymphatic malformations. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, vol.139, pp.671-676, 2008.

F. R. Sabin, The lymphatic system in human embryos, with a consideration of the morphology of the system as a whole, Amer. J Anat, vol.1909, issue.1, pp.43-91

V. Van-der-putte and J. Limborgh, The embryonic development of the main lymphatics in man

, Acta Morphol Neerl Scand, vol.18, issue.4, pp.323-358, 1980.

D. P. Zadvinskis, M. T. Benton, H. H. Kerr, A. A. Mancuso, and A. A. Cacciarelli, Congenital malformations of the cervicothoracic lymphatic system: embryology and pathogenesis, Radiographics, vol.12, issue.6, pp.1175-89, 1992.

G. R. Weingast, K. D. Hopper, S. A. Gottesfeld, and M. Ml, Congenital lymphangiectasia with fetal cystic hygroma: report of two cases with coexistent Down's syndrome, J Clin Ultrasound, vol.16, issue.9, pp.663-671, 1988.

A. Gedikbasi, A. Gul, A. Sargin, and Y. Ceylan, Cystic hygroma and lymphangioma: associated findings, perinatal outcome and prognostic factors in live-born infants, Arch Gynecol Obstet, vol.276, issue.5, pp.491-499, 2007.

C. Y. Sanhal, I. Mendilcioglu, M. Ozekinci, S. Yakut, and Z. Merdun, Prenatal management, pregnancy and pediatric outcomes in fetuses with septated cystic hygroma, Braz J Med Biol Res, vol.47, issue.9, pp.799-803, 2014.

P. E. Burrows, M. L. Gonzalez-garay, J. C. Rasmussen, M. B. Alrich, and R. Guilliod, Lymphatic abnormalities are associated with RASA1 gene mutations in mouse and man, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.21, issue.21, pp.8621-8627, 2013.

V. L. Luks, N. Kamitaki, M. P. Vivero, W. Uller, R. R. Bovee et al., Lymphatic and other vascular malformative/overgrowth disorders are caused by somatic mutations in PIK3CA, J Pediatr, vol.166, issue.4, pp.1048-54, 2015.

S. Norgall, M. Papoutsi, J. Rössler, S. Lothar, and J. Wilting, Elevated expression of VEGFR-3 in lymphatic endothelial cells from lymphangiomas, BMC Cancer, pp.105-112, 2007.

H. Hy, C. C. Ho, P. H. Huang, and S. M. Hsu, Co-expression of VEGF-C and its receptors, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3, in endothelial cells of lymphangioma. Implication in autocrine or paracrine regulation of lymphangioma, 17. International Society for the Study of vascular Anomalies (ISSVA), vol.81, pp.1729-1763, 2001.

L. M. De-serres, K. C. Sie, and M. A. Richardson, Lymphatic malformations of the head and neck. A proposal for staging, Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, vol.121, issue.5, pp.577-82, 1995.

E. E. Berg, S. E. Sobol, and I. Jacobs, Laryngeal obstruction by cervical and endolaryngeal lymphatic malformations in children: proposed staging system and review of treatment, Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, vol.122, issue.9, pp.575-81, 2013.

S. Wiegand, B. Eivazi, A. P. Zimmermann, A. Neff, and P. J. Barth, Microcystic lymphatic malformations of the tongue: diagnosis, classification, and treatment, Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, vol.135, issue.10, pp.976-83, 2009.

C. Wittekindt, O. Michel, and M. Streppel, Lymphatic malformations of the head and neck: introduction of a disease score for children, Cologne Disease Score (CDS), Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, vol.70, pp.1205-1212, 2006.

E. M. Kirkham, T. Edwards, E. Weaver, and K. Balakrishnan, The Lymphatic Malformation Function (LMF) Instrument. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, vol.153, pp.656-662, 2015.

C. Koelblinger, C. Herlod, S. Nemec, and V. Berger-kulemann, Fetal magnetic resonance imaging of lymphangiomas, J Perinat Med, vol.41, issue.4, pp.437-480, 2013.

J. Roume, M. Senat, and D. Molina-gomes, Extrait des Mises à jour en Gynécologie et Obstétrique -TOME XXVI, 2002.

F. Paris,

A. Weingertner, F. R. Clarté-nucale, and . Emc, Gynécologie/Obstétrique, 2009.

O. Tm, S. M. Rickert, A. M. Diallo, and C. Scheuermann-poley, Lymphatic malformations of the airway, Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, vol.149, issue.1, pp.156-60, 2013.

J. Ma, R. Biao, F. Lou, K. Lin, and Y. Gao, Diagnosis and surgical treatment of cervical macrocystic lymphatic malformations in infants, Exp Ther Med, vol.14, issue.2, pp.1293-1298, 2017.

J. A. Perkins, C. Maniglia, A. Magit, M. Sidhu, S. C. Manning et al., Clinical and radiographic findings in children with spontaneous lymphatic malformation regression, Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, vol.138, issue.6, pp.772-779, 2008.

T. L. Kennedy, M. Whitaker, P. Pellitteri, and W. E. Wood, Cystic hygroma/lymphangioma: a rational approach to management, Laryngoscope, vol.111, pp.1929-1966, 2001.

, Décret 14 janvier, 2014.

A. Ministère-des, D. E. Sociales, . La, . Et, . Droits et al., , p.1512973, 2015.

W. H. Peranteau, S. D. Lyoob, M. M. Boelig, N. Khalek, J. S. Moldenhauer et al.,

, Prenatal growth characteristics of lymphatic malformations, J Pediatr Surg, vol.52, issue.1, pp.65-68, 2017.

P. Laje, W. H. Peranteau, H. L. Hedrick, A. W. Flake, and M. P. Johnson, Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) in the management of cervical lymphatic malformation, J Pediatr Surg, vol.50, issue.2, pp.311-315, 2015.

P. Laje, M. P. Johnson, L. J. Howell, M. W. Bebbington, and H. L. Hedrick, Ex utero intrapartum treatment in the management of giant cervical teratomas, J Pediatr Surg, vol.47, issue.6, pp.1208-1224, 2012.

K. Balakrishnan and J. Perkins, Management of Head and Neck Lymphatic Malformations, Facial Plast Surg, vol.28, pp.596-602, 2012.

S. Guneyli, N. Ceylan, S. Bayraktaroglu, T. Acar, and R. Savas, Imaging findings of vascular lesions in the head and neck, Diagn Interv Radiol, vol.20, issue.5, pp.432-439, 2014.

L. J. Higgins, J. Koshy, and M. Se, Time-resolved contrast-enhanced MRA (TWIST) with gadofast trisodium, Clin Radiol, vol.71, issue.1, pp.32-41, 2016.

P. Pietarinen-runtti, S. Apajalahti, S. Robinson, and F. Passador-santos, Cystic neck lesions: clinical, radiological and differential diagnostic considerations, Acta Oto-Laryngologica, vol.130, pp.300-304, 2010.

J. Sira and Z. G. Makura, Differential diagnosis of cystic neck lesions, Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, vol.120, issue.6, pp.409-422, 2011.

C. M. Giguere, N. Bauman, and J. Richard, New Treatment Options for Lymphangioma in Infants and Children, Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, vol.111, 2002.

I. J. Zamora, C. G. Ethun, L. M. Evans, and O. O. Olutoye, Maternal morbidity and reproductive outcomes related to fetal surgery, J Pediatr Surg, vol.48, issue.5, pp.951-956, 2013.

J. C. Oosthuizen, P. Burns, and J. D. Russel, Lymphatic malformations: a proposed management algorithm, Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, vol.74, issue.4, pp.398-403, 2010.

M. Sadick, W. A. Wohlgemuth, R. Huelse, B. Lange, and T. Henzler, Interdisciplinary Management of Head and Neck Vascular Anomalies: Clinical Presentation, Diagnostic Findings and Minimalinvasive Therapies, Eur J Radiol Open, vol.14, pp.63-682017, 2017.

A. Shergill, P. John, and J. G. Amaral, Doxycycline sclérothérapy in children with lymphatic malformations : outcome, complications and clinical efficacy, Pediatr Radiol, vol.42, issue.9, pp.1080-1088, 2012.

A. K. Greene, Current concepts of vascular anomalies, J Craniofac Surg, vol.23, issue.1, pp.220-224, 2012.

S. E. Horbach, M. M. Lokhorst, P. Saeed, E. De-gouyon-matignon, and C. M. Pontouraude, Sclerotherapy for low-flow vascular malformations of the head and neck : A systematic review of sclerosing agents, J Plast Reconstr Aenesth Surg, vol.69, issue.3, pp.295-304, 2016.

C. M. Giguère, N. M. Bauman, and Y. Sato, Treatment of lymphangiomas with OK-432 (Picibanil) sclerotherapy: a prospective multi-institutional trial, Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, vol.128, issue.10, pp.1137-1181, 2002.

M. A. Emran, J. Dubois, L. Laberge, A. Al-jazaeri, A. Bütter et al., Alcoholic solution of zein (Ethibloc) sclerotherapy for treatment of lymphangiomas in children, J Pediatr Surg, vol.41, issue.5, pp.975-984, 2006.

A. D. Akkaya, Y. Oram, and C. Demirkesen, Combined Lymphatic and Capillary Malformation Successfully Treated with Pulsed Dye and Fractional Carbon Dioxide Lasers. Congress for PD

F. Angiero, S. Benedicenti, A. Benedicenti, K. Arcieri, and E. Berne, Head and neck hemangiomas in pediatric patients treated with endolesional 980-nm diode laser, Photomed Laser Surg, vol.27, issue.4, pp.553-562, 2009.

M. Hamoir, I. Plouin-gaudon, P. Rombaux, G. Francois, and A. S. Cornu, Lymphatic malformations of the head and neck: a retrospective review and a support for staging, Head Neck, vol.23, issue.4, pp.326-363, 2001.

P. Morgan, R. Keller, and K. Patel, Evidence-Based Management of Vascular Malformations, Facial Plast Surg, vol.32, issue.2, pp.162-76, 2016.

J. Lerat, C. Mounayer, A. Scomparin, S. Orsel, J. P. Bessede et al., Head and neck lymphatic malformation and treatment: Clinical study of 23 cases, Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis, vol.133, issue.6, pp.393-396, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02438138

J. Goswamy, S. E. Penney, I. A. Bruce, and M. P. Rothera, Radiofrequency ablation in the treatment of paediatric microcystic lymphatic malformations, J Laryngol Otol, vol.127, issue.3, pp.279-842013, 2013.

P. J. Thottam, R. Al-barazi, D. N. Madgy, and A. Rozzelle, Submucosal resection of a microcystic oropharyngeal lymphatic malformation using radiofrequency ablation, Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, vol.77, issue.9, pp.1589-922013, 2013.

S. Civelek, I. Sayin, I. Ercan, B. O. Cakir, and S. Turgut, Bipolar radiofrequency-induced interstitial thermoablation for oral cavity vascular malformations: Preliminary results in a series of 5 children, Ear Nose Throat J, vol.91, issue.11, pp.488-92, 2012.

D. Pozo, J. Lopez-gutierrez, J. C. Gomez-tellado, M. Nistal, M. Soler et al., Capillary-lymphatic malformation, kaposiform hemangioendothelioma and delayed Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon, Pediatr Dermatol, vol.28, pp.439-482, 2011.

J. Lopez-gutierrez, M. M. Diaz, M. , R. Z. Tovar, and J. A. , Osteolysis and lymphatic anomalies : a review of 54 consecutive cases, Lymphat res Biol, vol.10, pp.164-72, 2012.

J. K. Wu, E. D. Hooper, S. L. Laifer-narin, L. L. Simpson, J. Kandel et al., Initial experience with propanolol treatment of lymphatic anomalies : a case series, Pediatrics, vol.138, 2016.

J. H. Tu, E. Tayofa, M. Jeng, and J. M. Teng, Long-Term Follow-Up of Lymphatic Malformations in Children Treated with Sildenafil, Pediatr Dermatol, vol.34, issue.5, pp.559-565, 2017.

S. Huber, C. J. Bruns, G. Schmid, P. C. Hermann, C. Conrad et al., Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin impedes lymphangiogenesis, Kidney Int, vol.71, pp.771-778, 2007.

S. Kobayashi, T. Kishimoto, S. Kamata, M. Otsuka, M. Miyazaki et al., Rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin, suppresses lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis, Cancer Sci, vol.98, pp.726-759, 2007.

S. Yesil, C. Bozkurt, H. G. Tanyildiz, and S. A. Tekgunduz, Successful Treatment of Macroglossia Due to Lymphatic Malformation With Sirolimus, Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, vol.124, issue.10, pp.820-823, 2015.

D. M. Adams, C. C. Trenor, A. M. Hammil, and A. A. Vinks, Efficacy and Safety of Sirolimus in the Treatment of Complicated Vascular Anomalies, Pediatrics, vol.137, issue.2, p.20153257, 2016.

D. M. Adams, L. R. Brandao, C. M. Peterman, A. Gupta, and M. Patel, Vascular anomaly cases for the pediatric hematologist oncologists-An interdisciplinary review, Pediatr Blood Cancer, vol.65, issue.1, 2018.

P. Triana, M. Dore, V. N. Cerezo, M. Cervantes, and A. V. Sanchez, Sirolimus in the Treatment of Vascular Anomalies, Eur J Pediatr Surg, vol.27, issue.1, pp.86-90, 2017.

J. E. Strychowsky, R. Rahbar, M. J. O'hare, and A. L. Irace, Sirolimus as treatment for 19 patients with refractory cervicofacial lymphatic malformation, Laryngoscope, vol.128, issue.1, pp.269-276, 2018.

N. Kathary, D. I. Bulas, K. D. Newman, and R. L. Schonberg, MRI imaging of fetal neck masses with airway compromise: utility in delivery planning, Pediatr Radiol, vol.31, issue.10, pp.727-758, 2001.

A. M. Hubbard, T. M. Crombleholme, and N. S. Adzick, Prenatal MRI evaluation of giant neck masses in preparation for the fetal exit procedure, Am J Perinatol, vol.15, issue.4, pp.253-260, 1998.

T. M. Quinn, A. M. Hubbard, and N. S. Adzick, Prenatal magnetic resonance imaging enhances fetal diagnosis, Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol.33, issue.4, pp.553-561, 1998.