V. I. Bibliographiques,

, Collège des universitaires en hépato-gastro-entérologie, Beaugerie L, Sokol H. Les fondamentaux de la pathologie digestive: enseignement intégré, appareil digestif, 2014.

N. Amara, Imagerie normale du rectum et du canal anal, 2014.

R. L. Drake, W. Vogl, A. Mitchell, F. Duparc, and J. Duparc, Coquerel-Béghin D. Gray's Anatomie pour les étudiants, 2015.

J. Morris, J. A. Spencer, and N. S. Ambrose, MR imaging classification of perianal fistulas and its implications for patient management, Radiogr Rev Publ Radiol Soc N Am Inc. juin, vol.20, issue.3, pp.635-637, 2000.

A. Barleben and S. Mills, Anorectal anatomy and physiology, Surg Clin North Am. févr, vol.90, issue.1, pp.1-15, 2010.

J. Stoker, C. I. Bartram, and S. Halligan, Imaging of the posterior pelvic floor, Eur Radiol. avr, vol.12, issue.4, pp.779-88, 2002.

C. A. Cuenod, V. De-parades, N. Siauve, P. Marteau, C. Grataloup et al.,

, J Radiol. avr, vol.84, issue.4, pp.516-544, 2003.

A. Jean-philippe, Radio-anatomie proctologique EMC, 2002.

R. G. Beets-tan, G. L. Morren, G. L. Beets, A. G. Kessels, K. El-naggar et al., Measurement of anal sphincter muscles: endoanal US, endoanal MR imaging, or phased-array MR imaging? A study with healthy volunteers, Radiology. juill, vol.220, issue.1, pp.81-90, 2001.

S. Paramasivam, A. Proietto, and M. Puvaneswary, Pelvic anatomy and MRI, Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. févr, vol.20, issue.1, pp.3-22, 2006.

J. Torres, S. Mehandru, J. Colombel, P. , and L. , Crohn's disease, Lancet Lond Engl, vol.29, pp.1741-55, 2017.

J. D. Feuerstein and A. S. Cheifetz, Crohn Disease: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management, Mayo Clin Proc, vol.92, issue.7, pp.1088-103, 2017.

E. Lerebours, G. Savoye, and C. Guedon,

, Gastroenterol Clin Biol. mars, vol.27, issue.3, pp.76-80, 2003.

A. N. Ananthakrishnan, Epidemiology and risk factors for IBD, Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. avr, vol.12, issue.4, pp.205-222, 2015.

N. A. Molodecky, I. S. Soon, D. M. Rabi, W. A. Ghali, M. Ferris et al., Increasing incidence and prevalence of the inflammatory bowel diseases with time, based on systematic review, Gastroenterology. janv, vol.142, issue.1, pp.46-54, 2012.

I. S. Soon, N. A. Molodecky, D. M. Rabi, W. A. Ghali, H. W. Barkema et al., The relationship between urban environment and the inflammatory bowel diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis, BMC Gastroenterol. 24 mai, vol.12, p.51, 2012.

S. C. Ng, W. Tang, J. Y. Ching, M. Wong, C. M. Chow et al., Incidence and phenotype of inflammatory bowel disease based on results from the Asia-pacific Crohn's and colitis epidemiology study, Gastroenterology. juill, vol.145, issue.1, pp.158-165, 2013.

S. C. Ng, H. Y. Shi, N. Hamidi, F. E. Underwood, W. Tang et al., Worldwide incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in the 21st century: a systematic review of population-based studies, Lancet Lond Engl, vol.23, pp.2769-78, 2018.

, Abrégé d'hépato-gastro-entérologie et de chirurgie digestive 3ème édition -Partie « Connaissances » -© par la CDU-HGE -Editions Elsevier-Masson -Septembre, 2015.

F. T. Moller, V. Andersen, J. Wohlfahrt, and J. T. , Familial risk of inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based cohort study 1977-2011, Am J Gastroenterol. avr, vol.110, issue.4, pp.564-71, 2015.

D. Mcgovern, S. Kugathasan, and J. H. Cho, Genetics of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Gastroenterology. oct, vol.149, issue.5, pp.1163-1176, 2015.

S. K. Yang, E. V. Loftus, and W. J. Sandborn, Epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease in Asia, Inflamm Bowel Dis. août, vol.7, issue.3, pp.260-70, 2001.

S. S. Mahid, K. S. Minor, R. E. Soto, C. A. Hornung, and S. Galandiuk, Smoking and inflammatory bowel disease: a meta-analysis, Mayo Clin Proc, vol.81, issue.11, pp.1462-71, 2006.

R. Ungaro, C. N. Bernstein, R. Gearry, A. Hviid, K. Kolho et al., Antibiotics associated with increased risk of new-onset Crohn's disease but not ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis, Am J Gastroenterol, vol.109, issue.11, pp.1728-1766, 2014.

C. Gasche, J. Scholmerich, J. Brynskov, D. Haens, G. Hanauer et al., A simple classification of Crohn's disease: report of the Working Party for the World Congresses of Gastroenterology, Inflamm Bowel Dis. févr, vol.6, issue.1, pp.8-15, 1998.

E. Louis, Behaviour of Crohn's disease according to the Vienna classification: changing pattern over the course of the disease, Gut. 1 déc, vol.49, issue.6, pp.777-82, 2001.

J. Cosnes, S. Cattan, A. Blain, L. Beaugerie, F. Carbonnel et al., Long-term evolution of disease behavior of Crohn's disease, Inflamm Bowel Dis. juill, vol.8, issue.4, pp.244-50, 2002.

L. Peyrin-biroulet, E. V. Loftus, W. J. Tremaine, W. S. Harmsen, A. R. Zinsmeister et al., Perianal Crohn's disease findings other than fistulas in a population-based cohort, Inflamm Bowel Dis. janv, vol.18, issue.1, pp.43-51, 2012.

B. Veauthier and J. R. Hornecker, Crohn's Disease: Diagnosis and Management, Am Fam Physician, vol.98, issue.11, pp.661-670, 2018.

D. Heresbach, Frequency and significance of granulomas in a cohort of incident cases of Crohn's disease, Gut. 1 févr, vol.54, issue.2, pp.215-237, 2005.

T. J. Chambers and B. C. Morson, The granuloma in Crohn's disease, Gut. 1 avr, vol.20, issue.4, pp.269-74, 1979.

S. Mahadev, J. M. Young, W. Selby, and M. J. Solomon, Quality of life in perianal Crohn's disease: what do patients consider important?, Dis Colon Rectum. mai, vol.54, issue.5, pp.579-85, 2011.

L. E. Hughes, Surgical pathology and management of anorectal Crohn's disease, J R Soc Med. sept, vol.71, issue.9, pp.644-51, 1978.

L. E. Hughes, Clinical classification of perianal Crohn's disease. Dis Colon Rectum, vol.35, pp.928-960, 1992.

J. M. Régimbeau, Y. Panis, D. Parades, V. Marteau, P. Valleur et al.,

, Gastroenterol Clin Biol. janv, vol.24, issue.1, pp.36-47, 2000.

L. Linares, L. F. Moreira, H. Andrews, R. N. Allan, A. et al., Natural history and treatment of anorectal strictures complicating Crohn's disease, Br J Surg. juill, vol.75, issue.7, pp.653-658, 1988.

E. J. Irvine, Usual therapy improves perianal Crohn's disease as measured by a new disease activity index. McMaster IBD Study Group, J Clin Gastroenterol. janv, vol.20, issue.1, pp.27-32, 1995.

D. H. Present, P. Rutgeerts, S. Targan, S. B. Hanauer, L. Mayer et al., Infliximab for the treatment of fistulas in patients with Crohn's disease, N Engl J Med. 6 mai, vol.340, issue.18, pp.1398-405, 1999.

A. J. Pikarsky, P. Gervaz, and S. D. Wexner, Perianal Crohn disease: a new scoring system to evaluate and predict outcome of surgical intervention, Arch Surg Chic Ill, vol.137, issue.7, pp.774-781, 1960.

G. Hellers, O. Bergstrand, S. Ewerth, and B. Holmström, Occurrence and outcome after primary treatment of anal fistulae in Crohn's disease, Gut. juin, vol.21, issue.6, pp.525-532, 1980.

A. Lapidus, O. Bernell, G. Hellers, and R. Löfberg, Clinical course of colorectal Crohn's disease: a 35-year follow-up study of 507 patients, Gastroenterology. juin, vol.114, issue.6, pp.1151-60, 1998.

L. Beaugerie, P. Seksik, I. Nion-larmurier, J. Gendre, and J. Cosnes, Predictors of Crohn's disease, Gastroenterology. mars, vol.130, issue.3, pp.650-656, 2006.

A. G. Parks, Pathogenesis and treatment of fistuila-in-ano, Br Med J. 18 févr, vol.1, issue.5224, pp.463-472, 1961.

D. A. Schwartz, E. V. Loftus, W. J. Tremaine, R. Panaccione, W. S. Harmsen et al., The natural history of fistulizing Crohn's disease in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Gastroenterology. avr, vol.122, issue.4, pp.875-80, 2002.

D. A. Schwartz, L. J. Ghazi, M. Regueiro, A. Fichera, M. Zoccali et al., Guidelines for the multidisciplinary management of Crohn's perianal fistulas: summary statement, Inflamm Bowel Dis. avr, vol.21, issue.4, pp.723-753, 2015.

A. Garros, L. Siproudhis, B. Tchoundjeu, T. Rohou, C. Brochard et al., Magnetic resonance imaging and clinical assessments for perianal Crohn's disease: gain and limits. Dig Liver Dis Off, J Ital Soc Gastroenterol Ital Assoc Study Liver. déc, vol.46, issue.12, pp.1072-1078, 2014.

B. Safar and D. Sands, Perianal Crohn's disease. Clin Colon Rectal Surg, vol.20, pp.282-93, 2007.

D. A. Schwartz, M. J. Wiersema, K. M. Dudiak, J. G. Fletcher, J. E. Clain et al., A comparison of endoscopic ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and exam under anesthesia for evaluation of Crohn's perianal fistulas, Gastroenterology, vol.121, issue.5, pp.1064-72, 2001.

G. Maconi, S. Ardizzone, S. Greco, E. Radice, C. Bezzio et al., Transperineal ultrasound in the detection of perianal and rectovaginal fistulae in Crohn's disease, Am J Gastroenterol, vol.102, issue.10, pp.2214-2223, 2007.

G. N. Buchanan, S. Halligan, C. I. Bartram, A. B. Williams, D. Tarroni et al., Clinical examination, endosonography, and MR imaging in preoperative assessment of fistula in ano: comparison with outcome-based reference standard, Radiology. déc, vol.233, issue.3, pp.674-81, 2004.

K. B. Gecse, W. Bemelman, M. A. Kamm, J. Stoker, R. Khanna et al., A global consensus on the classification, diagnosis and multidisciplinary treatment of perianal fistulising Crohn's disease, Gut. sept, vol.63, issue.9, pp.1381-92, 2014.

A. G. Parks, P. H. Gordon, and J. D. Hardcastle, A classification of fistula-in-ano, Br J Surg. janv, vol.63, issue.1, pp.1-12, 1976.

W. J. Sandborn, V. W. Fazio, B. G. Feagan, and S. B. Hanauer, American Gastroenterological Association Clinical Practice Committee. AGA technical review on perianal Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology, vol.125, pp.1508-1538, 2003.

J. A. Spencer, K. Chapple, D. Wilson, J. Ward, A. C. Windsor et al., Outcome after surgery for perianal fistula: predictive value of MR imaging, AJR Am J Roentgenol. août, vol.171, issue.2, pp.403-409, 1998.

F. Makowiec, E. C. Jehle, and M. Starlinger, Clinical course of perianal fistulas in Crohn's disease. Gut, vol.37, pp.696-701, 1995.

I. Molendijk, V. Nuij, A. E. Van-der-meulen-de-jong, and C. J. Van-der-woude, Disappointing durable remission rates in complex Crohn's disease fistula, Inflamm Bowel Dis, vol.20, issue.11, pp.2022-2030, 2014.

P. Roumeguère, D. Bouchard, F. Pigot, A. Castinel, F. Juguet et al., Combined approach with infliximab, surgery, and methotrexate in severe fistulizing anoperineal Crohn's disease: results from a prospective study, Inflamm Bowel Dis. janv, vol.17, issue.1, pp.69-76, 2011.

F. Gomollón, A. Dignass, V. Annese, H. Tilg, G. Van-assche et al., 3rd European Evidence-based Consensus on the Diagnosis and Management of Crohn's Disease 2016: Part 1: Diagnosis and Medical Management, J Crohns Colitis. janv, vol.11, issue.1, pp.3-25, 2017.

P. Gionchetti, A. Dignass, S. Danese, M. Dias, F. J. Rogler et al., 3rd European Evidence-based Consensus on the Diagnosis and Management of Crohn's Disease 2016: Part 2: Surgical Management and Special Situations, J Crohns Colitis. févr, vol.11, issue.2, pp.135-184, 2017.

K. T. Thia, U. Mahadevan, B. G. Feagan, C. Wong, A. Cockeram et al., Ciprofloxacin or metronidazole for the treatment of perianal fistulas in patients with Crohn's disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study, Inflamm Bowel Dis. janv, vol.15, issue.1, pp.17-24, 2009.

R. L. West, C. J. Van-der-woude, B. E. Hansen, R. Felt-bersma, A. Van-tilburg et al., Clinical and endosonographic effect of ciprofloxacin on the treatment of perianal fistulae in Crohn's disease with infliximab: a double-blind placebo-controlled study, Aliment Pharmacol Ther. déc, vol.20, pp.1329-1365, 2004.

D. C. Pearson, G. R. May, G. H. Fick, and L. R. Sutherland, Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine in Crohn disease. A meta-analysis, Ann Intern Med. 15 juill, vol.123, issue.2, pp.132-174, 1995.

D. H. Present and S. Lichtiger, Efficacy of cyclosporine in treatment of fistula of Crohn's disease, Dig Dis Sci. févr, vol.39, issue.2, pp.374-80, 1994.

P. Atienza, Fistules ano-perineales réfractaires de la maladie de Crohn, 2007.

B. E. Sands, F. H. Anderson, C. N. Bernstein, W. Y. Chey, B. G. Feagan et al., Infliximab maintenance therapy for fistulizing Crohn's disease, N Engl J Med. 26 févr, vol.350, issue.9, pp.876-85, 2004.

J. Colombel, D. A. Schwartz, W. J. Sandborn, M. A. Kamm, D. Haens et al., Adalimumab for the treatment of fistulas in patients with Crohn's disease, Gut. juill, vol.58, issue.7, pp.940-948, 2009.

M. J. Lee, C. E. Parker, S. R. Taylor, L. Guizzetti, B. G. Feagan et al., Efficacy of Medical Therapies for Fistulizing Crohn's Disease: Systematic Review and Metaanalysis, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol Off Clin Pract J Am Gastroenterol Assoc, vol.16, issue.12, pp.1879-92, 2018.

P. Dewint, B. E. Hansen, E. Verhey, B. Oldenburg, D. W. Hommes et al., Adalimumab combined with ciprofloxacin is superior to adalimumab monotherapy in perianal fistula closure in Crohn's disease: a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial (ADAFI), Gut. févr, vol.63, issue.2, pp.292-301, 2014.

G. Bouguen, L. Siproudhis, E. Gizard, T. Wallenhorst, V. Billioud et al., Longterm outcome of perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease treated with infliximab, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol Off Clin Pract J Am Gastroenterol Assoc. août, vol.11, issue.8, pp.975-981, 2013.

P. Tozer, S. C. Ng, M. R. Siddiqui, S. Plamondon, D. Burling et al., Long-term MRIguided combined anti-TNF-? and thiopurine therapy for Crohn's perianal fistulas, Inflamm Bowel Dis, vol.18, issue.10, pp.1825-1859, 2012.

D. A. Schwartz, J. H. Pemberton, and W. J. Sandborn, Diagnosis and treatment of perianal fistulas in Crohn disease, Ann Intern Med, vol.135, issue.10, pp.906-924, 2001.

P. R. Williamson, M. D. Hellinger, S. W. Larach, and A. Ferrara, Twenty-year review of the surgical management of perianal Crohn's disease, Dis Colon Rectum. avr, vol.38, issue.4, pp.389-92, 1995.

A. Haennig, G. Staumont, B. Lepage, P. Faure, L. Alric et al., The results of seton drainage combined with anti-TNF? therapy for anal fistula in Crohn's disease, Colorectal Dis Off J Assoc Coloproctology G B Irel. avr, vol.17, issue.4, pp.311-320, 2015.

V. Rozalén, D. Parés, E. Sanchez, J. Troya, S. Vela et al., Advancement Flap Technique for Anal Fistula in Patients With Crohn's Disease: A Systematic Review of the Literature, Cirugia Espanola. déc, vol.95, issue.10, pp.558-65, 2017.

S. Malakorn, T. Sammour, S. Khomvilai, I. Chowchankit, S. Gunarasa et al., Ligation of Intersphincteric Fistula Tract for Fistula in Ano: Lessons Learned From a Decade of Experience, Dis Colon Rectum, vol.60, issue.10, pp.1065-70, 2017.

J. Panés, D. García-olmo, G. Van-assche, J. F. Colombel, W. Reinisch et al., Expanded allogeneic adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Cx601) for complex perianal fistulas in Crohn's disease: a phase 3 randomised, double-blind controlled trial, Lancet Lond Engl. 24 sept, vol.388, pp.1281-90, 2016.

É. Pommaret, P. Benfredj, D. Soudan, and V. De-parades, Techniques d'épargne sphinctérienne dans le traitement des fistules anales, J Chir Viscérale. avr, vol.152, issue.2, pp.29-34, 2015.

A. Senéjoux, L. Siproudhis, L. Abramowitz, N. Munoz-bongrand, K. Desseaux et al., Fistula Plug in Fistulising Ano-Perineal Crohn's Disease: a Randomised Controlled Trial, J Crohns Colitis. févr, vol.10, issue.2, pp.141-149, 2016.

J. Grimaud, N. Munoz-bongrand, L. Siproudhis, L. Abramowitz, A. Sénéjoux et al., Fibrin glue is effective healing perianal fistulas in patients with Crohn's disease, Gastroenterology. juin, vol.138, issue.7, pp.2275-81, 2010.

G. Sciaudone, D. Stazio, C. Limongelli, P. Guadagni, I. Pellino et al., Treatment of complex perianal fistulas in Crohn disease: infliximab, surgery or combined approach, Can J Surg J Can Chir, vol.53, issue.5, pp.299-304, 2010.

H. Corte, L. Maggiori, X. Treton, J. H. Lefevre, M. Ferron et al., Rectovaginal Fistula: What Is the Optimal Strategy?: An Analysis of 79 Patients Undergoing 286 Procedures, Ann Surg, vol.262, issue.5, pp.860-861, 2015.

E. Ong, L. J. Ghazi, D. A. Schwartz, and K. J. Mortelé, Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc. Guidelines for imaging of Crohn's perianal fistulizing disease, Inflamm Bowel Dis. avr, vol.21, issue.4, pp.731-737, 2015.

S. P. Sheedy, D. H. Bruining, E. J. Dozois, W. A. Faubion, and J. G. Fletcher, MR Imaging of Perianal Crohn Disease, Radiology. mars, vol.282, issue.3, pp.628-673, 2017.

R. G. Beets-tan, G. L. Beets, A. G. Van-der-hoop, A. G. Kessels, R. F. Vliegen et al., Preoperative MR imaging of anal fistulas: Does it really help the surgeon?, Radiology. janv, vol.218, issue.1, pp.75-84, 2001.

J. Panes, Y. Bouhnik, W. Reinisch, J. Stoker, S. A. Taylor et al., Imaging techniques for assessment of inflammatory bowel disease: joint ECCO and ESGAR evidence-based consensus guidelines, J Crohns Colitis. août, vol.7, issue.7, pp.556-85, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01704202

M. Zappa and C. Bertin, Imagerie moderne de la maladie de Crohn, EMC -Radiol Imag Médicale -Abdominale -Dig. janv, vol.7, issue.1, pp.1-11, 2012.

C. Savoye-collet, O. Suaud, and E. Koning, Exploration en imagerie des fistules anales. EMC -Radiol Imag Médicale -Abdominale -Dig, janv, vol.6, issue.3, pp.1-13, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02342246

N. Kumar, Y. Agarwal, A. S. Chawla, R. Jain, and B. B. Thukral, MRI of perianal fistulae: a pictorial kaleidoscope, Clin Radiol. déc, vol.70, issue.12, pp.1451-61, 2015.

V. N. Chidi and D. A. Schwartz, Imaging of perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease, Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. juin, vol.9, issue.6, pp.797-806, 2015.

G. Buchanan, S. Halligan, A. Williams, C. Cohen, D. Tarroni et al., Effect of MRI on clinical outcome of recurrent fistula-in-ano, Lancet Lond Engl, vol.360, issue.9346, pp.1661-1663, 2002.

F. Maccioni, M. C. Colaiacomo, A. Stasolla, L. Manganaro, L. Izzo et al., Value of MRI performed with phased-array coil in the diagnosis and pre-operative classification of perianal and anal fistulas, Radiol Med (Torino). août, vol.104, issue.1-2, pp.58-67, 2002.

J. De-miguel-criado, L. G. Del-salto, P. F. Rivas, L. Del-hoyo, L. G. Velasco et al., MR imaging evaluation of perianal fistulas: spectrum of imaging features, vol.32, pp.175-94, 2012.

N. M. Desouza, A. S. Hall, R. Puni, D. J. Gilderdale, I. R. Young et al., High resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the anal sphincter using a dedicated endoanal coil. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging with surgical findings, Dis Colon Rectum. août, vol.39, issue.8, pp.926-960, 1996.

N. M. Desouza, R. Puni, W. A. Kmiot, C. I. Bartram, A. S. Hall et al., MRI of the anal sphincter, J Comput Assist Tomogr. oct, vol.19, issue.5, pp.745-51, 1995.

S. Halligan and C. I. Bartram, MR imaging of fistula in ano: are endoanal coils the gold standard?, AJR Am J Roentgenol. août, vol.171, issue.2, pp.407-419, 1998.

G. Lo-re, C. Tudisca, F. Vernuccio, D. Picone, M. Cappello et al., MR imaging of perianal fistulas in Crohn's disease: sensitivity and specificity of STIR sequences, Radiol Med (Torino). avr, vol.121, issue.4, pp.243-51, 2016.

M. Ziech, C. Lavini, S. Bipat, C. Y. Ponsioen, A. M. Spijkerboer et al., Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in determining disease activity in perianal fistulizing Crohn disease: a pilot study, AJR Am J Roentgenol. févr, vol.200, issue.2, pp.170-177, 2013.

K. Horsthuis, C. Lavini, S. Bipat, P. Stokkers, and J. Stoker, Perianal Crohn Disease: Evaluation of Dynamic Contrast-enhanced MR Imaging as an Indicator of Disease Activity, Radiology. mai, vol.251, issue.2, pp.380-387, 2009.

M. Cavusoglu, S. Duran, S. C?l?z, D. Tufan, G. Hatipoglu-Çetin et al., Added value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of perianal fistula, Diagn Interv Imaging. mai, vol.98, issue.5, pp.401-409, 2017.

A. Dohan, C. Eveno, R. Oprea, K. Pautrat, V. Placé et al., Diffusion-weighted MR imaging for the diagnosis of abscess complicating fistula-in-ano: preliminary experience, Eur Radiol. nov, vol.24, issue.11, pp.2906-2921, 2014.

M. Hori, A. Oto, S. Orrin, K. Suzuki, and R. L. Baron, Diffusion-weighted MRI: A new tool for the diagnosis of fistula in ano, J Magn Reson Imaging, vol.30, issue.5, pp.1021-1027, 2009.

L. Mohsen, Diffusion-weighted imaging in the evaluation of perianal fistula and abscess, 2004.

T. Yoshizako, A. Wada, T. Takahara, T. C. Kwee, M. Nakamura et al., Diffusion-weighted MRI for evaluating perianal fistula activity: feasibility study, Eur J Radiol. sept, vol.81, issue.9, pp.2049-53, 2012.

D. Tougeron, G. Savoye, C. Savoye-collet, E. Koning, F. Michot et al., Predicting factors of fistula healing and clinical remission after infliximab-based combined therapy for perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease, Dig Dis Sci. août, vol.54, issue.8, pp.1746-52, 2009.

T. Nolthenius, C. J. Bipat, S. Mearadji, B. Spijkerboer, A. M. Ponsioen et al., MRI characteristics of proctitis in Crohn's disease on perianal MRI, Abdom Radiol N Y, vol.41, issue.10, pp.1918-1948, 2016.

G. Van-assche, D. Vanbeckevoort, D. Bielen, G. Coremans, I. Aerden et al., Magnetic resonance imaging of the effects of infliximab on perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease, Am J Gastroenterol. févr, vol.98, issue.2, pp.332-341, 2003.

S. J. Bell, A. B. Williams, P. Wiesel, K. Wilkinson, R. Cohen et al., The clinical course of fistulating Crohn's disease, Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1 mai, vol.17, issue.9, pp.1145-51, 2003.

S. C. Ng, S. Plamondon, A. Gupta, D. Burling, A. Swatton et al., Prospective evaluation of anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy guided by magnetic resonance imaging for Crohn's perineal fistulas, Am J Gastroenterol. déc, vol.104, issue.12, pp.2973-86, 2009.

G. Savoye and C. Savoye-collet, How deep is remission in perianal Crohn's disease and do imaging modalities matter?, Am J Gastroenterol. juin, vol.105, issue.6, pp.1445-1451, 2010.

A. Losco, C. Viganò, D. Conte, B. M. Cesana, and G. Basilisco, Assessing the activity of perianal Crohn's disease: comparison of clinical indices and computer-assisted anal ultrasound, Inflamm Bowel Dis. mai, vol.15, issue.5, pp.742-751, 2009.

K. Horsthuis, M. Ziech, S. Bipat, A. M. Spijkerboer, A. C. De-bruine-dobben et al., Evaluation of an MRI-based score of disease activity in perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease, Clin Imaging, vol.35, issue.5, pp.360-365, 2011.

G. Bouguen, B. G. Levesque, S. Pola, E. Evans, and W. J. Sandborn, Endoscopic assessment and treating to target increase the likelihood of mucosal healing in patients with Crohn's disease, Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol Off Clin Pract J Am Gastroenterol Assoc. juin, vol.12, issue.6, pp.978-85, 2014.

C. Savoye-collet, G. Savoye, E. Koning, J. N. Dacher, and E. Lerebours, Fistulizing perianal Crohn's disease: contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging assessment at 1 year on maintenance anti-TNF-alpha therapy, Inflamm Bowel Dis. août, vol.17, issue.8, pp.1751-1759, 2011.

M. A. Samaan, C. Puylaert, .. J. Levesque, B. G. Zou, G. Y. Stitt et al., The development of a magnetic resonance imaging index for fistulising Crohn's disease, Aliment Pharmacol Ther, vol.46, issue.5, pp.516-544, 2017.

P. Hindryckx, V. Jairath, G. Zou, B. G. Feagan, W. J. Sandborn et al., Development and Validation of a Magnetic Resonance Index for Assessing Fistulas in Patients With Crohn's Disease, Gastroenterology, vol.157, issue.5, pp.1233-1244, 2019.

L. Thomassin, L. Armengol-debeir, C. Charpentier, V. Bridoux, E. Koning et al., Magnetic resonance imaging may predict deep remission in patients with perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease, World J Gastroenterol. 21 juin, vol.23, issue.23, pp.4285-92, 2017.

S. J. Bell, S. Halligan, A. Windsor, A. B. Williams, P. Wiesel et al., Response of fistulating Crohn's disease to infliximab treatment assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, Aliment Pharmacol Ther. févr, vol.17, issue.3, pp.387-93, 2003.

V. M. Runge, Critical Questions Regarding Gadolinium Deposition in the Brain and Body After Injections of the Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents, Safety, and Clinical Recommendations in Consideration of the EMA's Pharmacovigilance and Risk Assessment Committee Recommendation for Suspension of the Marketing Authorizations for 4 Linear Agents, Invest Radiol, vol.52, issue.6, pp.317-340, 2017.

R. C. Semelka, J. Ramalho, A. Vakharia, M. Alobaidy, L. M. Burke et al., Gadolinium deposition disease: Initial description of a disease that has been around for a while, Magn Reson Imaging. déc, vol.34, issue.10, pp.1383-90, 2016.

R. Agarwal, S. M. Brunelli, K. Williams, M. D. Mitchell, H. I. Feldman et al., Gadolinium-based contrast agents and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Nephrol Dial Transplant Off Publ Eur Dial Transpl Assoc -Eur Ren Assoc. mars, vol.24, issue.3, pp.856-63, 2009.

S. M. Rocklage, D. Worah, and S. H. Kim, Metal ion release from paramagnetic chelates: what is tolerable?, Magn Reson Med. déc, vol.22, issue.2, pp.216-237, 1991.

T. Kanda, K. Ishii, H. Kawaguchi, K. Kitajima, and D. Takenaka, High signal intensity in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus on unenhanced T1-weighted MR images: relationship with increasing cumulative dose of a gadolinium-based contrast material, Radiology. mars, vol.270, issue.3, pp.834-875, 2014.

R. J. Mcdonald, J. S. Mcdonald, D. F. Kallmes, M. E. Jentoft, D. L. Murray et al., Intracranial Gadolinium Deposition after Contrast-enhanced MR Imaging, Radiology. juin, vol.275, issue.3, pp.772-82, 2015.

D. A. Stojanov, A. Aracki-trenkic, S. Vojinovic, D. Benedeto-stojanov, and S. Ljubisavljevic, Increasing signal intensity within the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus on unenhanced T1W magnetic resonance images in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: correlation with cumulative dose of a macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agent, gadobutrol, Eur Radiol. mars, vol.26, issue.3, pp.807-822, 2016.

D. Stojanov, A. Aracki-trenkic, and D. Benedeto-stojanov, Gadolinium deposition within the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus after repeated administrations of gadolinium-based contrast agents-current status, Neuroradiology. mai, vol.58, issue.5, pp.433-474, 2016.

A. Radbruch, L. D. Weberling, P. J. Kieslich, O. Eidel, S. Burth et al., Gadolinium retention in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus is dependent on the class of contrast agent, Radiology. juin, vol.275, issue.3, pp.783-91, 2015.

N. Murata, L. F. Gonzalez-cuyar, K. Murata, C. Fligner, R. Dills et al., Macrocyclic and Other Non-Group 1 Gadolinium Contrast Agents Deposit Low Levels of Gadolinium in Brain and Bone Tissue: Preliminary Results From 9 Patients With Normal Renal Function, Invest Radiol, vol.51, issue.7, pp.447-53, 2016.

T. Kanda, T. Fukusato, M. Matsuda, K. Toyoda, H. Oba et al., Gadoliniumbased Contrast Agent Accumulates in the Brain Even in Subjects without Severe Renal Dysfunction: Evaluation of Autopsy Brain Specimens with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy, Radiology. juill, vol.276, issue.1, pp.228-260, 2015.

T. H. Darrah, J. J. Prutsman-pfeiffer, R. J. Poreda, E. Campbell, M. Hauschka et al., Incorporation of excess gadolinium into human bone from medical contrast agents, Met Integr Biometal Sci, vol.1, issue.6, pp.479-88, 2009.

W. A. Gibby, K. A. Gibby, and W. A. Gibby, Comparison of Gd DTPA-BMA (Omniscan) versus Gd HP-DO3A (ProHance) retention in human bone tissue by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, Invest Radiol. mars, vol.39, issue.3, pp.138-180, 2004.

G. W. White, W. A. Gibby, and M. F. Tweedle, Comparison of Gd(DTPA-BMA) (Omniscan) versus Gd(HP-DO3A) (ProHance) relative to gadolinium retention in human bone tissue by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, Invest Radiol. mars, vol.41, issue.3, pp.272-280, 2006.

M. Rogosnitzky and S. Branch, Gadolinium-based contrast agent toxicity: a review of known and proposed mechanisms, BioMetals. juin, vol.29, issue.3, pp.365-76, 2016.

R. M. Gathings, R. Reddy, S. Cruz, D. Brodell, and R. T. , Gadolinium-associated plaques: a new, distinctive clinical entity, JAMA Dermatol. mars, vol.151, issue.3, pp.316-325, 2015.

M. Ramalho, J. Ramalho, L. M. Burke, and R. C. Semelka, Gadolinium Retention and Toxicity-An Update, Adv Chronic Kidney Dis, vol.24, issue.3, pp.138-184, 2017.

A. Rosado-ingelmo, D. Diaz, I. , C. Moreno, R. et al., Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management of Hypersensitivity Reactions to Contrast Media, J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol, vol.26, issue.3, p.155, 2016.

J. Jung, H. Kang, M. Kim, W. Lee, K. Min et al., Immediate hypersensitivity reaction to gadolinium-based MR contrast media, Radiology. août, vol.264, issue.2, pp.414-436, 2012.

J. Panes, Y. Bouhnik, W. Reinisch, J. Stoker, S. A. Taylor et al., Imaging techniques for assessment of inflammatory bowel disease: joint ECCO and ESGAR evidence-based consensus guidelines, J Crohns Colitis. août, vol.7, issue.7, pp.556-85, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01704202

W. J. Sandborn, V. W. Fazio, B. G. Feagan, and S. B. Hanauer, American Gastroenterological Association Clinical Practice Committee. AGA technical review on perianal Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology, vol.125, pp.1508-1538, 2003.

M. Chambaz, M. Verdalle-cazes, C. Desprez, L. Thomassin, C. Charpentier et al., Deep remission on magnetic resonance imaging impacts outcomes of perianal fistulizing Crohn's disease, Dig Liver Dis. mars, vol.51, issue.3, pp.358-63, 2019.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02363668

K. Singh, N. Singh, C. Thukral, K. P. Singh, and V. Bhalla, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of perianal fistulae with surgical correlation, J Clin Diagn Res JCDR. juin, vol.8, issue.6, pp.1-04, 2014.