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Master Thesis

Épigénétique, maltraitances infantiles et pathologies mentales : mécanismes et revue de la littérature

Abstract : Child abuse is a phenomenon whose extent is poorly understood in France. It is estimated that around 30% of people in the general population in Europe have experienced childhood neglect or abuse to varying degrees and that around 10% have been victims of sexual abuse. Childhood abuse and neglect is a major risk factor for the development of mental illnesses throughout life. In addition, it promotes the early onset of the disorders, associated with poorer response to treatment and often more severe prognosis. In recent decades, many studies have focused on the different clinical, biological and developmental consequences, of early stress events in childhood. The emergence of epigenetics has opened up new avenues of research making it possible to better understand the mechanisms involved. Epigenetics refers to all the modifications of DNA, heritable during cell divisions, without alteration or modification of the genomic sequence. The influence of the prenatal and postnatal environment plays an essential role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Different epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, post-translational modifications of histones or the action of non-coding RNAs, ensure the repression or activation of the transcription of target genes allowing the differentiated cell to acquire its own identity, which makes it possible to explain that the same genotype can lead to different cellular phenotypic expressions. In recent years, various studies have shown that psychotropic treatments play an epigenetic role, which could explain some of the effects of these treatments. Advances in the understanding of these epigenetic mechanisms and their implications in various psychiatric pathologies open the way for potential new therapeutic approaches such as inhibitors of the enzyme histone deacetylase.
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Master Thesis
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https://dumas.ccsd.cnrs.fr/dumas-03266126
Contributor : Jean-Hugues Morneau <>
Submitted on : Wednesday, June 30, 2021 - 2:07:32 PM
Last modification on : Friday, July 2, 2021 - 3:27:58 AM

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  • HAL Id : dumas-03266126, version 1

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Jean Semette. Épigénétique, maltraitances infantiles et pathologies mentales : mécanismes et revue de la littérature. Médecine humaine et pathologie. 2020. ⟨dumas-03266126⟩

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