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Master Thesis

Déterminants et méthodes concernant les pratiques contraceptives dans l'Antiquité

Abstract : Context: contraception refers to all means of avoiding pregnancy for a limited or unlimited time. The desire to control births has existed since antiquity and various contraceptive means are described in the literature. Nevertheless, all societies ignore the mechanisms of fertilization until the nineteenth century. During antiquity, contraception may include practices of abandonment of children. Egyptian and Greco-Roman societies influence Western societies in many areas. The history of contraception, which falls within the private sphere, is incorporated into a society. The study of the role and discourse of social actors in contraception, such as doctors and midwives, makes it possible to grasp the determinants of this practice in ancient civilizations. The analysis of the status of women gives us keys to understand the struggles waged by women throughout history for their emancipation and their reappropriation of the body through contraception. Objectives: to show that contraception is a tool of emancipation for women who saw their bodies become the property of men. Know the main contraceptive methods used in antiquity. Analyze the perception of fertility by doctors and society. Understanding the perception and discourse of physicians of the time on contraception. Materials and methods: This is a bibliographic and historiographic research of the type reviewed literature on contraception in Antiquity. It is accompanied by a study of analyses on ancient sources by contemporary researchers. Main results: different types of contraceptive methods are available in Egypt, Greece and Rome during antiquity. The use of honey, natron, celery, acacia and dates is common. The routes of application are numerous and can be associated. An intrauterine device is described by Soranos of Ephesus. The practice of the exhibition of children is frequent and revealing of a patriarchal system inked in the Greco-Roman world. The three civilizations attach great importance to fertility. Women of antiquity are dominated but this domination is to be qualified. Conclusion: contraception is present during antiquity in Greece, Rome and Egypt. It allows a mastery of births in these societies. The effectiveness of contraceptive methods is to be qualified according to the social class. Doctors and midwives play an important role in contraception. Women of antiquity have different positions in societies.
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Submitted on : Monday, July 12, 2021 - 1:55:01 PM
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Bidia Camara. Déterminants et méthodes concernant les pratiques contraceptives dans l'Antiquité. Gynécologie et obstétrique. 2020. ⟨dumas-03284176⟩



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