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Assessment of pulmonary tissue responses in pigs challenged with PRRSV Lena strain shows better protection after immunization with field than vaccine strains

Abstract : The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is plaguing porcine production. Previously piglets were immunized with a PRRSV-1 commercial modified live virus vaccine (MLV1), a PRRSV-2 MLV (MLV2) or a Western European strain (Finistere: Fini) to assess and compare the protection brought by these strains upon challenge with virulent Lena strain. Lena viremia was reduced in all the immunized groups with a slightly higher level of protection following immunization with Fini. Using lung samples collected from the same experiment, tissue response to Lena challenge was assessed at the acute and chronic stages of infection. A pre-immunization with any one of the three PRRSV strains globally exacerbated microscopic lung lesions. Ten days post-challenge (DPC), MLV1 group score was higher than unimmunized group score and 42 DPC, MLV2 group score was higher than in unimmunized group. Lowest lung Lena viral loads were measured in Fini group. Using principal component analysis, we showed 10 DPC that the lesion score was positively correlated with chemokine receptors and negatively correlated with viral load. Forty-two DPC, variables for lesion score, IL6, IL8, and CCL20 transcripts were positively correlated together and negatively correlated with CCL28, CXCL6, and CXCR4 transcripts suggesting a role for the latter ones in the tissue recovery process. In conclusions, our study shows a significant impact of the three immunizations on pulmonary tissue with the best protection against Lena challenge conferred by Fini strain. Furthermore, it gives insight into the interactions between vaccine and Fini strains and the lung upon Lena challenge.
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Submitted on : Friday, October 22, 2021 - 10:40:20 AM
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Thibaut Larcher, Christelle Fablet, Patricia Renson, Déborah Menard, Caroline Hervet, et al.. Assessment of pulmonary tissue responses in pigs challenged with PRRSV Lena strain shows better protection after immunization with field than vaccine strains. Veterinary Microbiology, Elsevier, 2019, 230, pp.249-259. ⟨10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.01.022⟩. ⟨hal-02061157⟩

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