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Master Thesis

Prenatal exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and infant respiratory and allergic outcomes in the PELAGIE cohort

Abstract : The prenatal period is an important window of vulnerability for the developing immune and respiratory systems. Slight environmental perturbations during this period may induce several diseases. In infancy, these diseases include decreased resistance to infectious diseases, hypersensitivity reactions or asthma. The immune and respiratory systems are both sensitive to developmental exposure to chemicals such as organophosphate pesticides (OPs). This study aimed at exploring the effect of prenatal exposure to OPs on respiratory and immunological health in infants. Methods: This study is based on the PELAGIE cohort which included 256 mother-child pairs. Dimethyl (DMP) and diethyl phosphates (DEP), nonspecific OP metabolites, were quantified in maternal urine collected at the beginning of pregnancy and disease outcomes were recorded for the first two years of child life. Maternal DMP and DEP urinary levels were categorized as low, medium or high. Outcomes – bronchiolitis/bronchitis, wheezing, eczema, rhinitis and food allergy - were assessed by self-administered questionnaire at age two. Associations between exposures and outcomes were estimated by logistic regression models, adjusting for potential confounders. Results: High DMP metabolite levels in maternal urine were associated with an increased risk of occurrence of 1 or 2 bronchiolitis/bronchitis episodes with a dose-response relationship (p-trend=0.01) while no association was observed with the occurrence of three or more bronchiolitis/bronchitis episodes. Medium DMP metabolite levels were negatively associated with wheezing (p-value=0.02). No association with DMP levels was observed for the three other outcomes. No association was observed between DEP urinary levels and any disease outcomes. Conclusions: Two previous epidemiological studies identified higher risks of recurrent otitis media in infants, and respiratory symptoms around 6 years of age, associated with pregnant maternal urinary OP metabolites levels. Our results complete those observations suggesting a potential developmental effect of prenatal OP exposure on respiratory and immunological health.
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Master Thesis
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Quentin Vieille. Prenatal exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and infant respiratory and allergic outcomes in the PELAGIE cohort. Life Sciences [q-bio]. 2016. ⟨dumas-01745495⟩

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