Impact sanitaire d'une attaque d'atténuation chez les sapeurs-pompiers de Paris

Abstract : For the past twenty years, the last evolutions in the design of buildings and modern materials have influenced the way home fires evolve, particularly in terms of smoke toxicity. As part of their daily jobs, the firefighters of Paris are often exposed to many pollutants revealed by recent epidemiological studies. The aim of the present study is to measure what type of health impact a new mode of action, the attack mitigation, would have by trying to alter the factors of exposition. In order to write this paper, we have established a list of the various pollutants contained in smoke, and after reviewing the available data, we have measured the concentration of four major pollutants in fires in France. Then we have focused our attention on exposition in a typical fire station to determine the time of exposition without IBA (Individual Breathing Apparatus) during the postoperative period and on the way back to the station. Thanks to studies conducted in the United States, we have been able to realize how much the time of exposition can be changed by the implementation of fire attack mitigations. Finally, we have relied on the EQRS’s approach to determine the impact of the Paris firefighters’ exposition to smoke with and without a fire attack mitigation. The assessment predicts in average an individual excess of risk of 3.7/100000, which ultimately results in 0.18 more than expected cases of cancer in the total population of the 4786 firefighters of Paris exposed to fire smoke. The risk quotient measuring the systemic effects is also above 1 with many pollutants. Contrary to a classical attack, the fire attack mitigation allows to reduce the concentration of pollutants and thus also reduces the expected cancer rate by cutting down by three the risk quotient. Nevertheless, the risk quotient remains above 1. To conclude it is necessary to implement new methods of prevention in order to lower the sanitary risks connected to the exposition to smoke. The study of other modes of fire combat, such as the fire attack mitigation could lead to positive results. These measures must be practical and the simplest possible.
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Master Thesis
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Julien Valdenaire. Impact sanitaire d'une attaque d'atténuation chez les sapeurs-pompiers de Paris. Sciences de l'Homme et Société. 2018. ⟨dumas-02109284⟩

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