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Master Thesis

Histoire de la psychiatrie russe. Réflexions sur la construction du savoir psychiatrique

Abstract : Scientific methodology alone is not enough to capture the evolution of psychiatric knowledge which is the last specialty to be affected by Evidence Based Medicine. Practice and discourse seem to be determined by externals factors to scientific logic; ideology, politics, interpersonal relationships influence the evolution of the specialty. We will try to defend this hypothesis through the history of Russian psychiatry. We will discuss the evolution of Russian psychiatry, from the origins to the end of the Empire. Madness is then a matter of spirits before becoming a legislative and medical issue. We will then study the place of psychiatry in the new Bolshevik regime, and its role in founding the New Man. We will show the Communist Party’s influence on psychiatry from the 1930s to the 1950s which established pavlovism as a mandatory paradigm. During the Cold War, psychiatry moved away from this model, but remained highly politicized and ideologized. We will also introduce the Russian psychoanalysis history which was first authorized then quickly rejected, considered as bourgeois. We will present the punitive psychiatric use by the authorities from 1960 to 1990; indeed several hundred dissidents were sent to psychiatric hospitals “to be cured”. Eventually, we will report on the reactions of world psychiatry to this drift, leading to Soviet exclusion from the World Psychiatric Association. Such a history is also of heuristic interest; the temptation to instrumentalize psychiatry remains consubstantial to the exercise of power, including in the so-called advanced liberal democracies.
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https://dumas.ccsd.cnrs.fr/dumas-02382347
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Submitted on : Wednesday, November 27, 2019 - 10:35:50 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, September 2, 2020 - 10:56:48 AM

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Léo Gonnet. Histoire de la psychiatrie russe. Réflexions sur la construction du savoir psychiatrique. Sciences du Vivant [q-bio]. 2019. ⟨dumas-02382347⟩

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