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Master Thesis

Association entre les caractéristiques de l'environnement physique des quartiers résidentiels et les trajectoires de z-scores d'IMC chez les adolescents à Montréal : étude de cohorte NDIT

Abstract : Context – The obesity epidemic is a concern, especially in Canada. Although many studies have examined the relationship between obesity and the residential environement, few studies have investigated this association taking into account the environment as a whole during adolescence. The objective is to study the association between the characteristics of the neighborhood’s physical environment and the trajectories of body mass index z-score (BMIz) in adolescents in Montreal. Methods – Data were from the NDIT cohort study of 1293 students from Montreal. BMI, expressed as z-score, was calculated using the CDC norms from three repeated measures of anthropometric data (on average at 12, 15 and 17 years old) performed in a standardized manner. The residential environment variables were retrieved from a geographic information system. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted to identify distinct neighborhood types from five environmental variables. Then, multivariate analyzes stratified on sex were conducted using a linear mixed regression. These models were adjusted for the country of birth of the participants, the education of their parents, and the percentage of people below the low-income threshold in the neighborhood. Results – This study involved 378 girls and 331 boys. Three types of neighborhoods have been identified. The “countryside” areas have a lot of vegetation, very few services and a low population density. The “urban” cluster includes areas with a high population density, many services and little vegetation. Finally, the “village-urban” cluster is distinguished from the countryside by its strong land use diversity and more walkable areas. After adjusting for potential confounders, no association between neighborhoods and BMIz over time was found in boys. For girls, living in an “urban” area seemed to decrease their IMCz over time whereas it was the opposite for "urban-village" area. Conclusion – Policies preventing obesity should recommend environments that promote walking as well as the availability of services. The study of all neighborhood characteristics appears to be the preferred approach in this type of research.
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Master Thesis
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Clémence Cavaillès. Association entre les caractéristiques de l'environnement physique des quartiers résidentiels et les trajectoires de z-scores d'IMC chez les adolescents à Montréal : étude de cohorte NDIT. Santé publique et épidémiologie. 2019. ⟨dumas-02435142⟩

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