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Master Thesis

Innovation dans un contexte d'incertitudes : quelles conséquences pour la prévention ? Le cas des nanoparticules

Abstract : Presented under the attractive banner of the opening of the "borders of the infinitesimal", nanoparticles invade our everyday life and all the business sectors (food-processing, electronic, cosmetic, medical, textile, car, etc.). Their size but also their surface of exchange providing them new chemical, mechanical, optical or biological properties, they represent important scientific and economic stakes. But this "invisible revolution" also comes along with uncertainties as for their effects on health and environment. This work, which answers a request of an manufacturer wishing to handle nanostructured products, aims at investigating the way the risks prevention initiatives can be organized in this double context of innovations and uncertainties. It is a question of renewing the approach of the professional risk prevention by favoring, on one hand, the development of the actors of the company and, on the other hand, the integration of the different forms of work logic, through the project of prevention. The implemented methodology associates interviews with real work observations in reference situations and has two objectives: understand the representations of the nanoparticles risks and create a space of collective debate on the professional practices within the framework of the current and future working activity. We so bring to light contrasted results between the operational actors and the decision-making actors. We observe, at the operational actors, important transformations of their representations at the same time of the risk bound to nanoparticles and of their own resources to face this emergent risk. We explain these transformations by their commitment and implication to the collective research for solutions of prevention. On the contrary, the decision-making actors, who less mobilized in the actions of simulation and transformation of the working situations, stay in classic patterns of risk management. These results confirm that the knowledge also build itself by the action, by the constructive activity which takes place in the productive activity. We also show that the possibility of collective activity around this project of conception of an approach of nanoparticles risks prevention help the actors to hold together both logics, innovation and prevention, and it, even in a context of uncertainties as for the effects of nanoparticles on health. These results offer interesting perspectives of research in different contexts, for example in systems of continuous improvement where the knowledge of the effects of the work on health is relatively stabilized.
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Master Thesis
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Catherine l'Allain. Innovation dans un contexte d'incertitudes : quelles conséquences pour la prévention ? Le cas des nanoparticules. Autre. 2011. ⟨dumas-00655776⟩

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