Marais des villes : gestion des eaux pluviales et retour des marais en milieu urbain ou périurbain

Abstract : Water is a ressource of growing importance in today’s societies. From its ancient divine veneration to modern management, water has and will continue to shape our world. Dessication, sanitation, drainage, flooding, pollution, and the increase of international tensions over water ressources are major concerns in the world today. Marshlands (which show a remarquable biodiversity and whose purifying qualities are recognised) have been devastated ,most often for urban clearance and economic reasons. Over the last century in France their surface has shrunk by two and a half million hectares. Nevertheless, for a few decades now (since we’ve understood phytopurification) constructed wetlands (filtration basins or pond sewage treatment plants ) are appearing, mainly in rural areas for water treatment purposes. They are now also spreading into cities in order to reduce the level of pollution in storm water (which is increasing due to urban “run off”). The management of urban stormwater is in the process of evolution. After centuries of trying to funnel water out of cities, todays preoccupation lies with “source control”, based essentially on bioretention (the infiltration of stormwater into the soil), and only storage as a last resort (usually leading to collective network under flow control). The recycling of water, even if it is encouraged, remains highly regulated and therefore modest. Some ambitious initiatives are developing for the purpose of major urban projects, centered on the reintroduction of “wetlands” in order to purify and recycle stormwater. These new urban sites are caracterised by their rich biodiversity (which allow cities to complete their biological corridor planning), the optimization of drainage and in certain contexts flood protection. It is under these three aspects that the following analysis is developed on the territory of “Grenoble Alpes Metropole” and in order to study the opportunity to reintroduce constructed wetlands in its area. Through the observation of the “small water cycle”, this paper is also a source of information on marshes and an analysis of the use of their functioning on urban sites. Lastly, it underlines the importance of institutional regulation for the return of marshes in our cities.
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https://dumas.ccsd.cnrs.fr/dumas-01389227
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Submitted on : Friday, October 28, 2016 - 10:50:34 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, February 27, 2019 - 10:56:18 PM

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  • HAL Id : dumas-01389227, version 1

Citation

Marie-Hélène Moody. Marais des villes : gestion des eaux pluviales et retour des marais en milieu urbain ou périurbain. Sciences de l'Homme et Société. 2016. ⟨dumas-01389227⟩

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