La phagothérapie orale

Abstract : Bacteriophages are viruses specific to bacteria, discovered more than a century ago and used very quickly in therapy. The East/West political divide at the end of the Second World War influenced medical development strategies in each of the two "camps". Efforts were then focused on antibiotics in the West. But the misuse of these antibiotics as well as the lack of new molecules developed by pharmaceutical companies led to the emergence of resistance. The recent explosion in the number of bacterial resistance to current antibiotics has justified the need to find alternative therapeutic solutions. In this context, phage therapy is back in the spotlight. More and more clinical trials around the world tend to prove the high antibacterial efficacy of lytic phages tested in animal models. The development of molecular and synthetic biology has opened up new possibilities; it is no longer envisaged to use whole phages but to design modified phages and recombinant proteins derived from phages. Encouraging performances have been observed in particular for phage enzymes, the most studied at present being polysaccharides depolymerases, involved in the degradation of the bacterial capsule and extracellular matrix of biofilm, and endolysins, responsible for peptidoglycan degradation. Although many steps remain to be taken before phage therapy can be seen in the available therapeutic arsenal, this is a promising avenue.
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Alizée Breton. La phagothérapie orale. Sciences du Vivant [q-bio]. 2019. ⟨dumas-02143436⟩

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