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Master Thesis

Effet de la dexmédétomidine sur la durée du délirium de réanimation chez les patients non intubés : essai clinique randomisé en double aveugle: étude 4D

Abstract : Background: Delirium during intensive care unit (ICU) stay is frequent and associated with significant morbidity, mortality and healthcare-related costs. International guidelines suggest its prevention. However, curative treatment remains unclearly established. Despite contradictory and ambiguous academic literature, international guidelines suggest the use of second-generation (atypical) antipsychotics over haloperidol. However, haloperidol remains the most widely used neuroleptic worldwide as a first-line treatment of agitation and/or delirium. Dexmedetomidine, an alpha2- adrenergic receptors agonist, has shown its efficiency in the treatment of delirium in intubated patients but also in its prevention. Dexmedetomidine represents a widely used alternative to haloperidol. Only few studies have compared the efficacy of dexmedetomidine in non-intubated ICU patients as a first-line curative treatment of delirium. The main objective of the 4D trial is to demonstrate that dexmedetomidine decreases delirium duration compared to placebo. Methods/design: The 4D trial is an investigator-initiated, prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, two-arm trial, randomizing 300 non-intubated ICU patients with a diagnosis of agitated delirium to receive dexmedetomidine or placebo as a cure. In case of agitation (RASS≥ + 2), immediate haloperidol administration will be allowed, to protect patient and staff in charge, while waiting for study treatment action. The primary outcome measure is a composite of duration of agitation or delirium or the use of intubation with deep sedation and mechanical ventilation. Secondary outcomes include mortalities at 7 and 30 days, ICU length of stay and occurrence of adverse effects related to dexmedetomidine use (bradycardia or hypotension requesting any treatment; or haloperidol use (neuroleptic malignant syndrome, extrapyramidal syndrome, prolonged QTc). The sample size will allow the detection of a 50% decrease of agitation duration (120 min), of an absolute reduction of delirium duration (1 day) and of a 50% relative decrease of intubation and mechanical ventilation, with a type 1 error rate of 1.8% (error risk inflation due to components of composite) and power of 90%, assuming a 15% incidence of intubation and mechanical ventilation requirements, an agitation duration of 240 min and a delirium duration of 3 days. One hundred and ten patients by group will be needed. An intermediate analysis is scheduled and requires the inclusion of 150 patients. Discussion: The 4D trial may provide important data on the safety of commonly used sedative dexmedetomidine and could have a significant impact on future treatment of non-intubated ICU patients presenting with agitated delirium.
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Master Thesis
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Clémence Louis. Effet de la dexmédétomidine sur la durée du délirium de réanimation chez les patients non intubés : essai clinique randomisé en double aveugle: étude 4D. Médecine humaine et pathologie. 2019. ⟨dumas-02294437⟩



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