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Master Thesis

Aspects éthiques et représentations de la sélection des embryons à travers le diagnostic pré-implantatoire

Abstract : The questions raised by scientific evolution are of particular relevance, as evidenced by the recent creation of the organization of the “Etats généraux de la bioéthique” in 2018. Indeed, scientific progress, particularly in the field of genetics, in recent years has enabled the development of certain reproductive technologies such as preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). This genetic technique of embryo selection, authorized in France in 1994, allows parents who are at risk of transmitting a serious genetic disease to be able to conceive a child free from the disease. Testimony in the medical field of a real feat, this raises many questions about its evolution, especially with the gradual increase of the indications it presents. Frequently compared to eugenics, the use of PGD has brought about concerns that, if taken to extremes, it could be used for controversial purposes such as ‘designer babies'. This dissertation aims to propose a reflection on the ethical issues raised by the use of PGD in reproductive medicine. For this purpose, a review of relevant literature was conducted. The main objective is to define and analyze the arguments found in favor of and against this technique in order to understand what the implicit representations in this debate are. The analysis of the results has highlighted scientific as well as sociological, economic and cultural representations. Due to the multiplicity of actors involved, in addition to the underlying ethical principles highlighted in this research, such as autonomy and responsibility, it has been possible to determine how embryo selection constitutes a significant ethical debate and thus to define how this debate is organized. It has also been possible to examine the evolution perspectives of this debate by considering the impact that the PGD could have on procreation and thus on the human race. By accompanying future parents in their decisions, health professionals, including midwives, have a degree of responsibility towards this technique, thus testifying to the importance of clarifying the debate so that everyone forms their own individual opinion.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, October 1, 2019 - 4:05:39 PM
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  • HAL Id : dumas-02302525, version 1

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Solène Izeros. Aspects éthiques et représentations de la sélection des embryons à travers le diagnostic pré-implantatoire. Gynécologie et obstétrique. 2019. ⟨dumas-02302525⟩

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