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Master Thesis

Connaissances et représentations mentales des soignants et des enseignants sur les troubles neurodéveloppementaux TDAH et TSA

Abstract : Introduction: Our study aims to evaluate the knowledge and the mental representations of caregivers (psychiatrists, child psychiatrists, general practitioners, pediatricians, interns and psychologists) and teachers on ADHD and ASD neurodevelopmental disorders. Our main objectives were to assess whether there was a link between participants' implicit theories and their knowledge of ADHD and ASD, between implicit theories and stigma in children with ADHD and ASD, and between implicit theories and stereotypes related to ADHD and ASD. Our secondary objectives were to assess participants' knowledge of ADHD and ASD, and the influence of age, years of experience, and profession. Material and methods: 203 participants (171 women and 32 men) volunteers responded to our online survey. The survey included several questionnaires : CAMI (adapted for ADHD and ASD), implicit theories of ADHD and ASD, ADHD Stigma Questionnaire (ASQ), Knowledge Attention Deficit Disorder Scale (KADDS), Autism Stigma Knowledge Questionnaire (ASK-Q) ) and Adult State Hope Scale. Results and discussion: About ADHD, our findings highlighted a link between ADHD entity theory and less positive stereotype among teachers, a link between ADHD entity theory and fewer perceptions of stigma among psychologists, a link between better knowledge about ADHD and more positive stereotype among psychiatrists, child psychiatrists, general practitioners and pediatricians, and a link between good perceptions about stigma and less negative stereotype across the sample . The knowledge on ADHD was evaluated at 63%. Regarding ASD, adherence to an entity theory increased with age among psychiatrists and child psychiatrists, and decreased with age among general practitioners, pediatricians and teachers. There was a link between ASD entity theory and less positive stereotype among teachers. Knowledge was associated with both positive and negative stereotypes, and better knowledge about ASD was associated with lower levels of stigma. The assessment of knowledge on ASD showed that participants had knowledge above 80% in the three subscales of knowledge, and that the stigma associated with ASD was not approved by the vast majority of our sample. Conclusion: This work confirms the impact of caregivers and teachers knowledge and beliefs on stereotypes and stigma. For future research, it would be interesting to evaluate separately ADHD and ASD on a larger sample of participants, and to take account of the exposure of participants to ADHD and ASD children, and training received on neurodevelopmental disorders. In addition, the development of training programs on neurodevelopmental disorders seems to us particularly important in order to improve knowledge and to change mental representations and beliefs in order to reduce stereotypes and stigmatization.
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Fanny Bermond. Connaissances et représentations mentales des soignants et des enseignants sur les troubles neurodéveloppementaux TDAH et TSA. Sciences du Vivant [q-bio]. 2019. ⟨dumas-02510969⟩



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