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Master Thesis

Amélioration de la durabilité des systèmes maraîchers biologiques sous abris : le projet Greenresilient

Abstract : Nowadays, the increase of organic vegetable attractivity (AgenceBio, 2019) leads to an intensification of the production, especially in greenhouses systems. This intensification have huge consequences for the environment because it necessarily leads to an increase of farm inputs (H. Kirchmann et al 2008) that can pollute soil and groundwater. In order to maximize the production, time between crop rotation is decreased and often vegetable from the same family are cultivated successively. This phenomenon has a negative impact on soil fertility and sanitary state of the crops. To remedy this situation, farmers are using more fertilizers, crop protection produces and plastics that jeopardize the self-sufficiency of agricultural systems. In light of these problems, the European Greenresilient project was born in 2018 with the ambition of improving the greenhouse organic vegetable production sustainability. During three years, the experimental station of the Grab in Avignon studied severals systems to understand the effect of three levers: flowers strips in the inner edge of the greenhouse, mixed crops and organic mulch (lucerne’s hay). A total of six systems was studied : four which combines different levers, one witness without any lever and an innovative system (with all three levers). Many indicators concerning the soil were monitored such as nitrogen quantity, tea bag index, soil humidity and temperature. Concerning plants development, their growth, nitrogen nutrition and yield were monitored. At last, a count of pest and insects caught in yellow bowls or barber’s traps gave us information about the functional diversity of our systems. In 2020, results have shown that flowers strips have allowed a better natural regulation of pests such as predator mites (Tetranychidae). Mixed crops shown to have a better yield and higher auxiliary population leading to a lower pests presence. The residual effect of organic mulch leads to an increase of nitrogen in the soil and a small increase of nitrogen nutrition in the plants. The end result of the experimentation allow us to say that the innovative system is the most environmentally sustainable. It has a better functional diversity, a higher soil fertility, a smaller dependency on farm input and a better production. An analysis of the social and economical dimension of this system could complete our understanding of the general sustainability of this innovative system.
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Submitted on : Friday, March 19, 2021 - 2:56:35 PM
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  • HAL Id : dumas-03174779, version 1

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Laura Affriat. Amélioration de la durabilité des systèmes maraîchers biologiques sous abris : le projet Greenresilient. Amélioration des plantes. 2020. ⟨dumas-03174779⟩

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