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Master Thesis

Étude des leviers viticoles et oenologiques pour une bonne gestion des amines biogènes dans les vins rouges

Abstract : Biogenic amines are allergenic compounds and also molecules that can alter the organoleptic profile of wines. Lactic acid bacteria in wine, including Oenococcus oeni, the main strain in malolactic fermentation, are able to produce these molecules from nitrogenous precursors. In order to reduce the biogenic amines content, it is necessary to understand which viticultural and oenological factors can contribute to this production. In the course of this work, we focused on the two main axes of control of the biogenic amines production. Firstly, the relationship between the concentration of precursor amino acids and the concentration of biogenic amines was studied along two axes: the role of the initial assimilable nitrogen content in grapes and the impact of the addition of oenological nitrogen nutrient products. Secondly, the control of the producing microbial flora was the central subject of this work by addressing the interest of co-inoculation with selected lactic acid bacteria and the bioprotection of grapes with S. cerevisiae and T. delbrueckii. The results of this work show how multifactorial is the biogenic amines subject. The grape variety, the process and the vintage are important factors in the variation of biogenic amine contents and variations within biogenic amines. For example, since the experiment on which this dissertation is based was conducted over two years (2019 and 2020), we were able to observe that the 2019 vintage was marked by higher levels of histamine, whereas for the 2020 vintage it was putrescine that proved to be predominant. Furthermore, it has been established that the presence of biogenic amines in wines, even in very small quantities, has a significant impact on their sensory perception. Thus, the data in this dissertation underline the great effectiveness of co-inoculation with selected lactic acid bacteria in order to limit the peak production of these molecules, which occurs between the end of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation. However, the interest of bioprotection remains to be proven since in our experiment it did not permit to limit the final contents of biogenic amines. The effects of assimilable nitrogen amount and nitrogen additions over biogenic amines content has also been discussed and invites further studies on the subject since it is a crucial subject for the sector.
Document type :
Master Thesis
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https://dumas.ccsd.cnrs.fr/dumas-03254099
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Submitted on : Tuesday, June 8, 2021 - 3:50:04 PM
Last modification on : Saturday, July 31, 2021 - 3:52:56 AM
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  • HAL Id : dumas-03254099, version 1

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Lisa Hostalrich. Étude des leviers viticoles et oenologiques pour une bonne gestion des amines biogènes dans les vins rouges. Agronomie. 2020. ⟨dumas-03254099⟩

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