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Master Thesis

Slum policies in India: Political discourses, outcomes, and policy shifts

Abstract : The Government of India has undertaken various policies since independence towards informal settlements that are a persistent part of most Indian cities. The research aims to analyze three national policies introduced since 2005, namely, Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), Rajiv Awas Yojana (RAY), and Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY) to determine if their outcomes aligned with their political discourse and which aspects of policy shift were influenced by the outcomes of former policies. These research aims are met through an extensive literature review of secondary sources such as academic articles and books, and primary data that included government documents, newspaper articles, and speeches by political leaders produced during the policy launch and implementation of the policy. The research findings suggest that while JNNURM and RAY claimed to prioritize the provision of housing and basic services through slum upgradation with an emphasis on community participation, the ground realities were very different. The outcomes suggest a large number of redevelopment schemes with more relocation than in-situ projects, poor quality of services, delays and cost overruns, lack of community involvement, and a large number of unoccupied houses. In RAY, a policy shift is visible towards more in-situ redevelopment than relocation, however, the outcomes are far from its aims of ‘Slum Free India’. Preliminary outcomes of the current policy, PMAY, suggest limited progress in its target of providing ‘housing for all by 2022’. The findings provide evidence that policy shifts were undertaken towards more in-situ redevelopment than relocation, a more decentralized funding structure, greater flexibility in policies and focus on smaller cities as a result of the outcome of former policies. The main conclusion drawn is that there is a gap between the political discourse and policy implementation of JNNUMR, RAY, and PMAY and while some outcomes have impacted policy shifts, other outcomes need more attention.
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Master Thesis
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Submitted on : Friday, October 1, 2021 - 9:11:11 AM
Last modification on : Saturday, April 16, 2022 - 3:40:03 AM


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Sreeparna Mitra. Slum policies in India: Political discourses, outcomes, and policy shifts. Architecture, space management. 2021. ⟨dumas-03360815⟩



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