La pêche chez les Wayana, Teko et Aluku en 2014 sur le Haut-Maroni (Guyane française) : complémentarité des enquêtes halieutiques et des cartes cognitives

Abstract : Fishing encompasses major heritage, economic, cultural and ecological challenges on the Upper Maroni Basin (French Guiana). This study aims at characterizing the Aluku, Wayana and Teko fisheries through two complementary approaches :
1. Multiscale (fisher villages, communities, Upper Maroni River) fish landings surveys for 4 seasons (2013-2014) led to assess the fishing effort, average yields, diversity and number of species landed and the available fish biomass per capita.
2. Semi-structured interviews and the development of 45 cognitive maps have allowed :
- to supplement the quantitative survey data together with the empirical knowledge and perceptions of Aluku and Amerindians fishers.
- to assess qualitatively and semi-quantitatively the anthropo-ecosystem changes in these fisheries between 1960 and 2014, and cultural representations for local people.
In a context of increasing and sedentary populations, fisheries is now based on daily fishing trips within shrinking village territories and some distant expeditions. A significant decline in fish production and part of fish in the inhabitants‘ diet has been raised since the 1960s. This decrease was due in part to a slowdown in demand, based on cultural opportunities to cope with changes linked to globalization lifestyles. Moreover, fisheries activity is strongly affected by clandestine gold washing. The fish stocks in this river look more jeopardized in two living areas (Twenké and Loca) compared to other sectors. Facing these changes, it seems relevant to use these initial findings to contribute to co-build the future of this river and its inhabitants.
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Guillaume Longin. La pêche chez les Wayana, Teko et Aluku en 2014 sur le Haut-Maroni (Guyane française) : complémentarité des enquêtes halieutiques et des cartes cognitives. Sciences de l'environnement. 2016. 〈dumas-01552857〉

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