Ebola : origines et circonstances des épidemies, physiopathologie de la maladie et perspectives de traitements en cours de développement

Abstract : Discovered in 1976, the Ebola virus has been responsible for about 20 outbreaks in Central and West Africa. This virus is a zoonosis whose reservoir consists in fruit bats. Humans can contract the disease by contact with infected animals. The Ebola virus belongs to the filovirus family and includes 5 species, among which the most virulent is the Zaire strain. Ebola virus disease is responsible for hemorrhagic fevers with lethality up to 90%. The incubation period lasts between 2 to 21 days during which the patient is asymptomatic and non-contagious. In severe forms, the disease can cause severe dehydration, rash and multi-organ hemorrhages. The virus preferentially targets cells from the immune system, resulting in the rapid weakening of the patient in the absence of proper care. The 2014-2015 epidemic has been the deadliest since it resulted in more than 11300 deaths. It took place in West Africa, Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. During these two years, WHO coordinated actions with NGOs and local authorities to stem the epidemic, setting up Ebola Treatment Centers as well as mobile laboratories. Currently, there is no specific treatment to cure the disease. Many researches are in progress and several molecules have been tested in preclinical and clinical trials. The goal is to develop effective treatments and vaccines to better prepare for a new outbreak.
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Master Thesis
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Caroline Bui. Ebola : origines et circonstances des épidemies, physiopathologie de la maladie et perspectives de traitements en cours de développement. Sciences pharmaceutiques. 2018. ⟨dumas-01939624⟩

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