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Master Thesis

Indicateurs pour l'analyse de la contribution d'un projet urbain à l'îlot de chaleur

Abstract : Urban areas throughout the world are experiencing rapid population growth. Forests and natural areas covered with vegetation are replaced by surfaces mineral and built. Accordingly, solar energy is absorbed by built-up areas and paved surfaces, causing a rise in surface temperature of urban structures, increasing the ambient air temperature. This phenomenon, called "urban heat island" has the effect of increasing energy demand for air buildings refreshing and accelerating the formation of urban smog, causing thermal discomfort for population, as well as problems to health by due to the intensification of heat waves in cities. In this research, we study the impact of the decrease in urban surface albedo on the phenomenon of heat island by focusing on the effect of urban forms and materials. Our goal is to propose one or more simplified indicators morphological, and a database of solar and thermal properties of building materials, to enable decision makers (architects, urban planes) to analyze the participation a project to the phenomenon of urban heat island. The investigation involves numerical simulation techniques. In the first part of this research, literature review will enable us to make accessions take stock of a part on their the impact of certain factors on the value of the surface albedo urban reflection of materials, their degradation, sky view factor (SVF), forms of urban areas, the density of buildings, and secondly on the various indicators proposed in the literature to quantify is the phenomenon of urban heat island is the albedo of surfaces. This information is necessary to achieve the objectives set forth below. The second part is to make solar simulations with the software SOLENE (simulation sunshine and heat (developed by the laboratory CERMA) that can approach a measure of albedo urban areas studied. This research will build on a recent project, the first phase of the project Lyon confluence. The conclusion of this study will develop a database of solar and thermal properties of materials of construction and propose one or more simplified indicators that can link the urban form and optical properties of surface materials and therefore to analyze upstream urban projects.
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Master Thesis
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https://dumas.ccsd.cnrs.fr/dumas-00469805
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Submitted on : Friday, April 2, 2010 - 3:16:29 PM
Last modification on : Saturday, March 13, 2021 - 3:01:11 AM
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  • HAL Id : dumas-00469805, version 1

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Khaled Athamena. Indicateurs pour l'analyse de la contribution d'un projet urbain à l'îlot de chaleur. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. 2008. ⟨dumas-00469805⟩

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