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Master Thesis

L'approche paysagère pour des stratégies d'actions en vue d'optimiser la conservation et la restauration d'un écosystème menacé : exemple de la forêt sèche de Nouvelle-Calédonie

Abstract : Habitat fragmentation is certainly the main cause of biodiversity loss worldwide. The dry forest of New Caledonia, whose current surface represents only 1% of its original surface, is highly fragmented and the remaining fragments are isolated through a landscape matrix principally made of anthropized areas. These are generally unfavorable: species flows are restrained and many threats (fire, squats, overgrazing, etc.) affect the different fragments. Involving different spatial scales from site to landscape, the landscape approach is the most relevant for this study. In a first step, the cartography of 10 functional landscape units (UPF) of dry forests in New Caledonia was established. Geomatic treatments operated with ArcGIS software, allowed to cross various criteria. Then, a methodology has been developed to study each UPF. It's based on six axis: the contextualization of the landscape unit, the characterization of its dry forest ecosystem, the evaluation of the source forests, the establishment of a model of functional connectivity by measuring the cost surface applied to birds, the localization of spaces for restoration and finally, the determination of apt or inapt sites to secure rare species. This methodology has been applied to the UPF1 (Grand Nouméa) where the rapid muta-tion of its landscapes makes it a priority. It has allowed to propose recommendations for the conservation of habitats and for the rare species they contain, the restoration of potential areas with native species of dry forest and the fight against invasive species. These recommendations will guide the land settlement to improve the sustainability of this ecosystem and ensure the security of its biodiversity.
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Master Thesis
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Submitted on : Friday, October 26, 2012 - 4:39:22 PM
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Benoît Grange. L'approche paysagère pour des stratégies d'actions en vue d'optimiser la conservation et la restauration d'un écosystème menacé : exemple de la forêt sèche de Nouvelle-Calédonie. Sciences agricoles. 2012. ⟨dumas-00745997⟩

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